Volatile oils from Philodendron meridionale Buturi & Sakur: chemical composition and in vitro effect against Ctenocephalides felis and leukemia cells





Araceae; Philodendron; Ent-kaur-16-ene; Cytotoxicity; Fleas; Essential oil.


Essential oils are an important natural source of pesticides and can be suitable used in ectoparasite control. The goal of this paper was to investigate the chemical composition of the volatile oils obtained from leaves and stems of Philodendron meridionale Buturi & Sakur by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and to evaluate their insecticidal effect against Ctenocephalides felis Bouché adult insects and their cytotoxicity on human Jurkat leukemic T-cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyltetrazoluim bromide (MTT) reduction method. The main compound was ent-kaur-16-ene at concentrations of 20.78 and 22.46% for volatile oils from leaves and stems, respectively. These volatile oils provided insecticidal effect against C. felis with an average knockdown time of 9.61 and 7.35 min for fumigant test performed with the leaves and stems samples, respectively. Considering the topical application, these P. meridionale volatile oils extracted from leaves and stems demonstrated average knockdown values of 14.70 and 20.0 min, respectively. A very low cytotoxic effect of 9.48 and 11.32% was observed for P. meridionale volatile oils from leaves and stems even at the highest tested concentration of 400 μg.mL-1, respectively. Therefore, it is possible to propose a biological selectivity to the volatile oils under study, which guarantees, at the same time, effect against this insect with no evident damage to human biological system.


Adams, R. P. (2007). Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/mass Spectrometry. (4th ed.). Allured Publishing Corporation.

Alliance, D., Santos, C. B. R., Barbosa, L. M. C., Gomes, J. S., Lobato, C. C., Viana, J. C., Ramos, R. S., Ferreira, R. M. A., & Souto, R. N. P. (2017). Chemical Study, Predictions "In Silico" and Larvicide Activity of the Essential Oil of Root Philodendron deflexum Poepp. JCTN. 14(7), 3330-3337. https://doi.org/10.1166/jctn.2017.6630.

Apolinário, R., Nogueira, J., Costa, M. G. S., Santos-Mallet, J., Santos, M. G., Azambuja, P., Mello, C. B., Gonzalez, M. S., Rocha, L. & Feder, M. D. (2020). Insecticidal activity of Pilocarpus spicatus Saint-Hilaire (Rutaceae) essential oil against the crop pest Dysdercus peruvianus (Guérin-Méneville, 1831) and Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas, 1852). Research, Society and Development, 9(11), e90091110489. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i11.10489

Bacchus, N. E., Oliveira, W. N., Marangon, C., & Moraes, C. M. (2015). Caracterização Química do Óleo Essencial de Philodendron sp. no Município de São João da Baliza, Roraima. Orbital: Electron J. Chem. 7(4), 376-381. http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i4.774.

Bakkali, F., Averbeck, S., Averbeck, D. & Idaomar, M. (2008). Biological effects of essential oils: a review. Food Chem Toxicol. 46, 446-475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.106.

Barros, J. C., Garcia, M. V., & Andreotti, R. In: Andreotti, R., Garcia, M. V., & Koller, W. W. (2019). Carrapatos na cadeia produtiva de bovinos. Brasília, DF: Embrapa, 2019. 240 p.

Batista, L. C. S. O., Cid, Y. P., Almeida, A. P., Prudêncio, E. R., Riger, C. J., Souza, M. A. A., Coumendouros, K., & Chaves, D. S. A. (2016). In vitro efficacy of essential oils and extracts of Schinus molle L. against Ctenocephalides felis felis. Parasitology. 143, 627-638. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182016000081.

Betim, F. C. M., Oliveira, C. F., Souza, A. M., Szabo, E. M., Zanin, S. M. W., Miguel, O. G., Miguel, M. D. & Dias, J. F. G. (2019). Ocotea nutans (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae): chemical composition, antioxidant capacity and biological properties of essential oil. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. 55, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s2175-97902019000118284

Bezerra, M. Z. B., Andrade-Neto, M., Freitas, R. M., & Feitosa, C. M. (2002). The root oil of Philodendron imbe Schott (Araceae). J Essent Oil Res. 14, 56-57. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2002.9699763.

Burgess, I. F. (2009). The mode of action of dimeticone 4% lotion against head lice, Pediculus capitis. BMC Pharmacology. 9, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2210-9-3.

Buturi, C. V., Temponi, L. G. & Sakuragui, C. M. (2014). A new species of Philodendron Schott (Araceae) in Paraná, Brazil. Phytotaxa. 174, 144-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.174.3.2.

Cardile, V., Russo, A., Formisano, C., Rigano, D., Senatore, F., Arnold, N. A. & Piozzi, F. (2009). Essential oils of Salvia bracteata and Salvia rubifolia from lebanon: chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effect on human melanoma cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 126(2), 265-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.08.034.

Castellar, A., Oliveira, D. R., Leitão, S. G., Bizzo, H. R., Soares, M. L. C., Kinupp, V. F. & Veiga-Junior, V. F. (2013). Essential oil from Philodendron fragrantissimum, an aromatic Araceae from Amazonia, Brazil. J Essent Oil Res. 25(3), 194-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2012.751557.

Chkhikvishvili, I., Sanikidze, T., Gogia, N., Mchedlishvili, T., Enukidze, M., Machavariani, M., Vinokur, Y. & Rodov, V. (2013). Rosmarinic Acid-Rich Extracts of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) Protect Jurkat T Cells against Oxidative Stress. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 9 pages. Article ID 456253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/456253.

Damasceno, C. S. B., Oliveira, L. F. O., Szabo, E. M., Souza, A. M., Dias, J. F. G., Miguel, M. D. & Miguel, O. G. (2017). Chemical composition, antioxidant and biological activity of Ocotea bicolor Vattimo-Gil (LAURACEAE) essential oil. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. 53(4), e17298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s2175-97902017000417298

Ding, L., Hou, Q., Zhou, Q., Zhang, Q., Hou, T. & Liu, G. (2010). Structure–activity relationships of eight ent-kaurene diterpenoids from three Isodon plants. Res Chem Intermed. 36, 443-452. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11164-010-0144-3

El-Deeb, A. S., Abdel-Aleem, I. M., Elamin, S. M., Refahy, L. A. & El-Shazly, M. A. (2012). Antiproliferative effect of phenolic glucosides isolated from Philodendron bipinnatifidum on HepG2 cells. Phytopharmacol. 3(2), 351-358.

Ellse, L. & Wall, R. (2014). The use of essential oils in veterinary ectoparasite control: a review. Med Vet Entomol. 28, 233–243. https://doi.org/10.1111/mve.12033.

Genovese, A. G., Mclean, M. K. & Khan, S. A. (2012). Adverse reactions from essential oil-containing natural flea products exempted from Environmental Protection Agency regulations in dogs and cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 22, 470–475. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-4431.2012.00780.x.

Hassanein, H. I., El-Ahwany, E. G., Salah, F. M., Hammam, O. A., Refai, L. & Hamed, M. (2011). Extracts of five medicinal herbs induced cytotoxicity in both hepatoma and myeloma cell lines. J Cancer Sci Ther. 3(10), 239-243. https://doi.org/10.4172/1948-5956.1000097

Ibrahim, M., Kainulainen, P., Aflatuni, A., Tiilikkala, K. & Holopainen, J. K. (2001). Insecticidal, repellent, antimicrobial activity and phytotoxicity of essential oils: with special reference to limonene and its suitability for control of insect pests. Agri Food Sci Finl. 10, 243-259. https://doi.org/10.23986/afsci.5697.

Izumi, E., Ueda-Nakamura, T., Veiga-Júnior, V. F. & Nakamura, C. V. (2013). Toxicity of Oleoresins from the Genus Copaifera in Trypanosoma cruzi: A Comparative Study. Plant Med. 79, 952–958. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1055/s-0032-1328712

Joffard, N., Legendre, L., Gibernau, M. & Pascal, L. (2017). Differential accumulation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) by leaves and roots of two Guianese Philodendron species, P. fragrantissimum Kunth and P. melinonii Brongn. Chem Biodivers. 14(4). https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201600415.

Kauffmann, C., Giacomin, A. C., Arossi, K., Pacheco, L. A., Hoehne, L., Freitas, E. M., Machado, G. M. C., Cavalheiro, M. M. C., Gnoatto, S. C. B. & Ethu, E. M. (2019). Antileishmanial in vitro activity of essential oil from Myrciaria plinioides, a native species from Southern Brazil. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci., 55, 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s2175-97902019000217584

Lans, C., Turner, N. & Khan, T. (2008). Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada. Parasitol Res. 103, 889–898. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-1073-6.

Miranda, C. A. S. F., Cardoso, M. G., Batista, L. R., Rodrigues, L. M. A. & Figueiredo, A. C. S. (2016). Óleos essenciais de folhas de diversas espécies: propriedades antioxidantes e antibacterianas no crescimento espécies patogênicas. Rev. Ciênc. Agron. 47(1), 213-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20160025.

Moura, V. M., Sousa, L. F., Santos, M. C., Raposo, J. D. A., Lima, A. E., Oliveira, R. B., Silva, M. N., & Mourão, R. H. V. (2015). Plants used to treat snakebites in Santarém, western Pará, Brazil: An assessment of their effectiveness in inhibiting hemorrhagic activity induced by Bothrops jararaca venom. J Ethnopharmacol. 161, 224-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.12.020.

Muelas-Serrano, S., Nogal, J. J., Martinez-Diaz, R. A., Escario, J. A., Martinez-Fernandez, A.R. & Gomez-Barrio, A. (2000). In vitro screening of american plant extracts on Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis. J Ethnopharmacol. 71(1), 101-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00185-3

Otero, R., Fonnegra, R., Jimenez, S. L., Nuneza, V., Evans, N., Alzate, S. P., Garcia, M. E., Saldarriaga, M., Del Valle, G., Osorio, R. G., Diaz, A., Valderrama, R., Duque, A. & Velez, H.N. (2000). Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia Part I: Traditional use of plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 71, 493–504.

Ottobelli, I., Facundo, V. A., Zuliani, J., Luz, C. C., Brasil, H. O. B., Militão, J. S. L. T. & Braz-Filho, R. (2011). Estudo químico de duas plantas medicinais da amazônia: Philodendron scabrum k. Krause (ARACEAE) e Vatairea guianensis Aubl. (FABACEAE). Acta Amazôn. 41(3), 393-400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0044-59672011000300009.

Pereira, C. B., Kanunfre, C. C., Farago, P. V., Borsato, D. M., Budel, J. M., Maia, B. H. L. N. S., Campesatto, E. A., Sartoratto, A., Miguel, M. D. & Miguel, O. G. (2017). Cytotoxic mechanism of Baccharis milleflora (Less.) DC. essential oil. Toxicol in Vitro. 42, 214–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2017.04.031

Pereira, F. O., Wanderley, P. A., Viana, F. A. C., Lima, R. B., Sousa, F. B., Santos, S. G. & Lima, E. O. (2011). Effects of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci., 47(1), 145-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-82502011000100018

Ract, J. N. R., Soares, F. A. S. M., Rodrigues, H. G., Bortolon, J. R., Murata, G. M., Gonçalves, M. I. A., Hatanaka, E., Curi, R. & Gioielli, L. A. (2015). Production of vegetable oil blends and structured lipids and their effect on wound healing. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci., 51(2), 415-427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-82502015000200019

Ribeiro, R. V., Silva, R. M., Lima, J. C. S. & Martins, D. T. O. (2010). Antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of hydroethanolic extract from Macrosiphonia velame (A. St.-Hil.) M. Arg. in animal models. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci., 46(3), 515-523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-82502010000300015

Rickli, M. E., Pradella, H. Q, Gomes, M. G., Belini, B. de P., Bortolucci, W. de C., Fernandez, C. M. M., Colauto, N. B., Linde, G. A. & Gazim, Z. C. (2020). Bioinsecticidal activity of Philodendron bipinnatifidum. Research, Society and Development, 9(11), e85791110464. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i11.10464

Riehl, P.S., Deporre, Y.C., Armaly, A.M., Groso, E.J. & Schindler, C.S. (2015). New avenues for the synthesis of ent-kaurene diterpenoids. Tetrahedron. 71, 6629-6650. https://doi.org/10.1002/chin.201542238.

Rodrigues, F. C., Almeida-Bezerra, J. W., Fidelis, K. R., Costa, A. R., Souza, M. A. de, Costa, M. H. N. da, Santos, L. T. dos, Gonçalo, M. A. B. F., Menezes, S. A. de, Sousa, S. M. de, Araujo, E. K. R. de, Braga, A. V. P., Ribeiro, T. G., Costa, A. R. de S., Santos, M. A. F. dos, Nunes, R. G. dos S. & Rocha, M. I. (2020). Chemical characterization and insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) against Nauphoeta cinerea (Blaberidae). Research, Society and Development, 9(9), e72996412. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i9.6412

Ryan, M. F. & Byrne, O. (1988). Plant-insect coevolution and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. J Chem Ecol. 14(10), 1965-1975. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01013489.

Santiago, J. A., Cardoso, M. G., Figueiredo, A. C. S., Moraes, J. C., Assis, F. A., Teixeira, M. L., Santiago, W. D., Sales, T. A., Camargo, K. C. & Nelson, D. L. (2014). Chemical Characterization and Application of the Essential Oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides and Philodendron bipinnatifidum in the Control of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Am J Plant Sci. 5(26), 3994-4002. https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.526417

Scapinello, J., Müller, L. G., Schindler, M. C. Z., Anzolin, G. S., Siebel, A. M., Boligon, A. A., Niero, R., Saraiva, T. E. S., Maus, N. P., Betti, A. H., Oliveira, J. V., Magro, J. D. & Oliveira, D. (2019). Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott ex Endl (Araceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 23(236), 21-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.037

Schmelz, E. A., Huffaker, A., Sims, J. W., Christensen, S. A., Lu, X., Okada, K. & Peters, R. J. (2014). Biosynthesis, elicitation and roles of monocot terpenoid Phytoalexin. The Plant J. 79, 659-678. https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12436.

Sfara, V., Zerba, E. N. & Alzogaray, R. A. (2009). Fumigant Insecticidal Activity and Repellent Effect of Five Essential Oils and Seven Monoterpenes on First-Instar Nymphs of Rhodnius prolixus. J Med Entomol. 46(3), 511-515. https://doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0315.

Silva, J. I. M., Souza, M. C. S., Soares, M. L. C., Costa, R. C. & Nunez, C. V. (2016). Óleos essenciais das raízes das espécies de Philodendron maximum, P. solimoesense e P. goeldii (ARACEAE). Rev Fitos. 10(1), 77-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/2446-4775.20160008

Sousa, D. P. (2012). Medicinal Essential Oils: Chemical, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Aspects. Nova Science Publishers.

Swiech, J. N. D., Bobek, V. B., Folquitto, D. G., Silva, R. Z., Budel, J. M., Farago, P. V., Miguel, M. D. & Miguel, O. G. (2016). Morpho-anatomy of the vegetative organs of Philodendron meridionale Buturi & Sakur. Lat Am J Pharm. 10, 2142-2148.

Swiech, J. N. D., Folquitto, D. G., Bobek, V. B., Urban, A. M., Betim, F. C. M., Oliveira, L. F., Pereira, C. B., Merino, F. J. Z., Dias, J. de F. G., Silva, R. Z. da Farago, P. V., Miguel, M. D. & Miguel, O. G. (2021). Phytotoxic and Enzymatic Study of Philodendron meridionale on seeds of Lactuca sativa L. Research, Society and Development, 10(1), e5610111336. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i1.11336

Sylvestre, M., Pichette, A., Longtin, A., Nagau, F. & Legault, J. (2006). Essential oil analysis and anticancer activity of leaf essential oil of Croton flavens L. from Guadeloupe. J Ethnopharmacol. 103(1), 99-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.07.011.

Toloza, A. C., Zygadlo, J., Cueto, G. M., Biurrun, F., Zerba, E. & Picollo, M. I. (2006). Fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils and component compounds against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina. J Med Entomol. 43(5), 889-895. https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585.

Toloza, A. C., Zerba, E., Masuh, H. & Picollo, M. I. (2008). Interspecific hybridization of Eucalyptus as a potential tool to improve the bioactivity of essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. Bioresour Technol. 99, 7341-7347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.12.067.

Toyomasu, T. & Sassa, T. (2010). In Diterpenes in Comprehensive Natural Products II. Chemistry and Biology; Mander, L., Liu H. W., Eds.; Newnes: 1.

Viana, F. A., Andrade-Neto, M. & Pouliquen, Y. B. M. (2002). Chemical composition of the essential oil from roots of Philodendron acutatum Schott. J Essent Oil Res. 14, 172-174. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2002.9699814.

Virador, V. M., Kobayashi, N., Matsunaga, J. & Hearing, V. J. (1998). A standardized protocol for assessing regulators of pigmentation. Anal Biochem. 270, 207-219. https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1999.4090.

Yang, N., Wang, J., Liu, C., Song, Y., Zhang, S., Zi, J., Zhan, J., Masilamani, M., Cox, A, Nowak-Wegrzyn, A., Sampson, H. & Li, X. (2014). Berberine and limonin suppress IgE production by human B cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from food-allergic patients. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 113(5), 556-564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2014.07.021

Yang, Y., Lee, H., Clark, J. M. & Ahn, Y. (2004). Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol. 41, 699-704. https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-41.4.699.

Zu-Yin, Y., Yu-Guang, L., He, X., Ya-Jun, S., Bo, D., Rui, H., Ya-Li, F., Zhen-Hu, Z., Ze-Yuan, L., Qin-Shi, Z., Sheng-Qi, W., Jia-Pei, C., Bing-Zhi, M. & Yu-Wen, C. (2007). Melissoidesin G, a diterpenoid purified from Isodon melissoides, induces leukemic‐cell apoptosis through induction of redox imbalance and exhibits synergy with other anticancer agents. Int. J. Cancer. 121, 2084-2094. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.22945.




How to Cite

SWIECH, J. N. D.; FOLQUITTO, D. G.; BOBEK, V. B.; URBAN, A. M. .; MONTEIRO, L. M.; SWIECH, M.; BETIM, F. C. M.; PEREIRA, C. B.; KANUNFRE , C. C. .; DIAS, J. de F. G. .; SILVA, R. Z. da; FARAGO, P. V. .; MIGUEL, M. D.; MIGUEL, O. G. Volatile oils from Philodendron meridionale Buturi & Sakur: chemical composition and in vitro effect against Ctenocephalides felis and leukemia cells. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. e48510111895, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i1.11895. Disponível em: https://www.rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/11895. Acesso em: 29 jan. 2023.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences