COVID-19 Reinfection: A review of the new evidence




Coronavirus infections; Pandemics; Collective immunity; Covid-19.


The outbreak of the disease caused by the new coronavirus in 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 and quickly spread across the world as a major health threat. Several reports of positive cases after hospital discharge have drawn research attention around the world. Thus, the present study seeks to report the main results of the most evidences scientific evidence regarding the theme. To this end, a narrative review was carried out using the main databases contained in the Virtual Health Library, a saber, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online - MEDLINE and Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences - LILACS. The short duration of seropositivity for neutralizing antibodies, the presence of more than genotypic variants of the virus, in addition to the fact that immunoglobulin levels may not correlate with viral elimination and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility increase the risk of reinfection by viruses, making it extremely necessary to disseminate measures to prevent infection, until more aspects of the virus are known and there is an effective vaccine capable of promoting colletive immunity.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)– symptoms. CDC. Disponível em: https:// Acesso em: 12/01/2021.

Chae, K. J., Jin, G. Y., Lee, C. S, Lee, H. B, Lee, J. H., & Kwon, K. S. (2020). Positive con- version of COVID-19 after two consecutive negative RT-PCR results: a role of low-dose CT. European Journal of Radiology, 129:109122.

Chandrashekar, A., Liu, J., Martinot, A.J., McMahan, K., Mercado, N. B., Peter, L., Tostanoski, L. H., … & Barouch, D. H. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 infection protects against rechallenge in rhesus macaques. Science, 14(369), 812-817.

Chen, Y., Bai, W., Liu, B., Huang, J., Laurent, I., Chen, F., … & Xiao, X. (2020). Re-evaluation of retested nucleic acid-positive cases in recovered COVID-19 pa- tients: report from a designated transfer hospital in Chongqing, China. Journal of Infectology Public Health, 13(7): 932-934.

Dou, P., Zhang, S., Wang, C., Cai, L., Liu, Z., & Xu, Q. (2020). Serial CT features in discharged COVID-19 patients with positive RT-PCR re-test. European Journal of Radiology, 127, 24–7.

Elias, C. S., Silva, L. A., Martins, M. T. S. L., Ramos, N. A. P., Souza, M. G. G. & Hipólito, R. L. (2012). Quando chega o fim? Uma revisão narrativa sobre terminalidade do período escolar para alunos deficientes mentais. Revista Electrónica en Salud Mental, Alcohol y Drogas, 8(1), 48-53.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. (2020). Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): discharge criteria for confirmed COVID-19 cases. ECDC Tech Rep, 1–5.

Fiocruz. Primeiro caso de reinfecção pela Covid-19 no país é confirmado. Disponível em: <>. Acesso em: 10.12.2020.

Hanaei, S., & Rezaei, N. (2020). COVID-19: developing from an outbreak to a pandemic. Archives of Medical Research, 51(6):582-584.

Kang, Y-J., & Joo, H. (2020). South Korea’s COVID-19 infection status: from the perspective of reconfirmation after complete recovery. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, 14, 1073–1075.

Kirkcaldy, R. D., King, B. A., & Brooks, J. T. (2020). COVID-19 and postinfection immunity: limited evidence, many remaining questions. JAMA, 9;323(22):2245-2246.

Korea Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Findings from investigation and analysis of re-positive cases. Press Release. News Room: KCDC. Disponível em: no=367267&nPage=8. Acesso em 24/12/2020.

Lan, L., Xu, D., Ye, G., Xia, C., Wang, S., Li, Y., … & Xu, H. (2020). Positive RT-PCR test results in patients recovered from COVID-19. JAMA, 323(15), 1502-1503.

Li, J., Wei, X., Tian, W., Zou, J., Wang, Y., Xue, W., & Huang, W. (2020). Clinical features of discharged COVID-19 patients with an extended SARS-CoV-2 RNApositive signal in respiratory samples. Virus Research, 286:198047.

Li, X. J., Zhang, Z. W., & Zong, Z. Y. (2020). A case of a readmitted patient who recovered from COVID-19 in Chengdu, China. Critical Care, 24: 8–10.

Ling, Y., Xu, S. B., Lin, Y. X., Tian, D., Zhu, Z. Q., Dai, F. H., … & Lu, H. Z. (2020). Persistence and clearance of viral RNA in 2019 novel coronavirus disease rehabilitation patients. Chinese Medical Journal (Engl), 133:1039–43.

Liu, L., To, K. K., Chan, K. H., Wong, Y. C., Zhou, R., Kwan, K. Y., … & Chen, Z. (2020). High neutralizing antibody titer in intensive care unit patients with COVID-19. Emerg Microbes Infections, 9(1), 1664–1670.

Loconsole, D., Passerini, F., Palmieri, V. O., Centrone, F., Sallustio, A., & Pugliese, S. (2020). Recurrence of COVID-19 after recovery: a case report from Italy. Infection, 48, 965–967.

Lotfi, M., & Rezaei, N. (2020). SARS-CoV-2: a comprehensive review from pathogenicity of the virus to clinical consequences. Journal of Medical Virology, 92:1864–1874.

Long, Q. X., Tang, X. J., Shi., Q. L., Li, Q., Deng, H. J., Yuan, J., … & Huang, A. (2020). Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nature Medicine, 26, 1200-1204.

Luo, A. Positive SARS-Cov-2 test in a woman with COVID-19 at 22 days after hospital discharge: a case report. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences, 7(4): 413–417.

Osman, A. A., Al Daajani, M. M., Alsahafi, A. J. (2020). Re-positive coronavirus disease 2019 PCR test: could it be a reinfection? New Microbes New Infectology, 37,100748.

Randolph, H. E., & Barriero, L. B. (2020). Herd immunity: understanding COVID-19. Immunity, 52(5):737-741.

Ravioli, S., Ochsner, H., & Lindner, G. (2020). Reactivation of COVID-19 pneumonia: a report of two cases. Journal of Infectology, 12(3).

Roy, S. (2020). COVID-19 reinfection: myth or truth? SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine, 2:710-713

Silva, W. M., Silva, M. E., Silva, W. B. de S., Santos, J. A., Gomes, M. C., Albuquerque, J. L. da S., Silva, G. C. dos S., Silva, E. R. B., e Silva, M. S., & Silva, G. F. (2020). Caracterização das alterações cutâneas provocadas pelo novo Coronavírus SARS-CoV-2: uma revisão das novas evidências. Revista Eletrônica Acervo Saúde, 12(9), e4118.

Silva, M. S., Silva, W. M., Silva, G. M., Souza, R. G., Santos, J. A., Luz, M. K. S, Ferreira, M. D. F., Silva, T. M. L., Rocha, L. C. P., & Silva, C. A. L. (2020). Manifestações neurológicas provocadas por COVID-19: uma revisão integrativa da literatura. Brazilian Journal of Development, 6(7), 52155-52163.

To, K. K., Tsang, O, T., Leung, W. S., Tam, A. R., Wu, T.C., Lung, D.C., … & Yuen, k. (2020). Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses during infection by SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study. The Lancet

Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 565-574.

Vosgerau, D. S. R., & Romanowski, J. P. (2014). Estudos de revisão: implicações conceituais e metodológicas. Revista Diálogo Educacional, 14(41), 165-189.

Wang, L. F., Yan, H., Zhang, D., Yun, Y., Zhang, C., An, C., … & Lei, L. (2020). Clinical characteristics and imaging findings of 35 patients recovered from COVID-19 with recurrent positive RT-PCR test results. SSRN Electron Journal. [preprint],

Weisblum, Y., Schmidt, F., Zhang, F., DaSilva, J., Poston, D., Lorenzi, J.C.C., … & Bieniasz, P. D. (2020). Escape from neutralizing antibodies by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variants. BioRxiv, [preprint], 2020;10.1101/2020.07.21.214759.

World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Disponível em: novel-coronavirus-2019. Acesso em: 12/01/2021.

Xing, Y., Mo, P., Xiao, Y., Zhao, O., Zhang, Y., & Wang, F. (2020). Post-discharge surveillance and positive virus detection in two medical staff recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), China, January to February 2020. Eurosurveillance, 25(10):pii=200019.

Yang, X., Yu, Y., Xu, J., Shu, H., Xia, J., Liu H., …. & Shang, Y. (2020). Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8:475–81.

Ye, G., Pan, Z., Pan, Y., Deng, Q., Chen, L., Li, J., … & Wang, X. (2020). Clinical characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reactivation. Journal of Infect, 80:e14–7.

Yuan, B., Chen, Y., Zhang, K., & Wang, C. (2020). Recurrence of positive SARS-CoV- 2 viral RNA in recovered COVID-19 patients during medical isolation observation. Nature Research, 10:1–12.

Zhang, B., Liu, S., Dong, Y., Zhang, L., Zhong, Q., & Zou, Y., & Zhang, S. (2020). Positive rectal swabs in young patients recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Journal of Infectology, 81(2): e49–e52.

Zheng, K. I., Wang, X. B., Jin, X. H., Liu, W. Y., Gao, F., Chen, Y. P., … & Zheng, M. (2020). A case series of recurrent viral RNA positivity in recovered COVID-19 Chinese patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 35(7), 2205–2206.



How to Cite

SILVA, W. M. da; SILVA, M. E. da; LIMA, J. M. G. de .; FERREIRA , A. P. C. .; OLIVEIRA, F. V. de .; SOUZA , K. A. F. de .; PEREIRA , J. F. de C. .; BEZERRA , J. J. .; SANTOS, M. P. .; SILVA , W. K. L. B. da .; SOUZA , J. N. V. A. .; SILVA , T. K. C. .; SILVA, E. K. de O. .; SILVA, C. A. de O. .; SILVA, J. M. M. da .; CARTACHO, V. O. .; SILVA , W. R. de S. .; MACÊDO, F. A. de .; SILVA, J. R. da .; SANTOS, N. F. G. dos . COVID-19 Reinfection: A review of the new evidence. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. e51910112016, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i1.12016. Disponível em: Acesso em: 26 mar. 2023.



Health Sciences