Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity in genotypes of Opuntia spp. against artificial infestation of Dactylopius opuntiae submitted to biotic and abiotic resistance inducers




Carmine cochineal; Oxidative enzymes; Infestation; Forage palm.


Products of biotic and abiotic origin are being investigated for use in pest management, many of these substances can act as resistance inducers, which induces the metabolism of enzymes involved in defense mechanisms. There is a search for efficient and alternative ways of controlling carmine cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell), the main pest of forage palm (Opuntia spp) in Northeast Brazil. The aim of the study was to evaluate the application of biotic and abiotic inducers on the palms to induce resistance through the activity of the antioxidant enzyme phenylalanine ammonia lyase. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the Federal University of Agreste of Pernambuco, using an Completely Randomized Design (CRD), distributed in a factorial scheme (3x8x3) with three Opuntia genotypes, eight treatments: Trichoderma viride URM 6824, Trichoderma viride URM 6823, Aureobasidium pullulans URM 6874, salicylic acid, chitosan, amino butyric acid, distilled water with the insect (positive control), distilled water without the insect (negative control), with three collection periods and four repetitions. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), the means being compared by the Scott-Knott test at the level of 5% probability (p <0.05) and by orthogonal contrasts. The biological inducers T. viride URM 6824 and T. viride URM 6823 as well amino butyric acid influenced the increase in the enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase. This result demonstrates the potential for use in alternative management, and future studies are needed to deepen the applicability in field conditions.


Almeida, H. O. et al. (2012). Enzimas marcadoras de indução de resistência diferencialmente reguladas em soja resistente e suscetível à ferrugem asiática da soja. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 47 (2), 163-172.

Canuto, C. et al. (2019). Biochar e esterco bovino aumentam a eficiência no uso de água da alface. Diversitas Journal, 4 (3), 1082-1091.

Carvalho, C. B. M. et al. (2018). Uso de cactáceas na alimentação animal e seu armazenamento após colheita. Archivos de Zootecnia, 67 (259), 440-446.

Dubeux Jr, J. C. B. et al. (2015). Forage potential of cacti on drylands. Acta Horticulturae, 1 (1067), 181-186.

Ferraz, A.P.F. et al. (2017). Incidence of cochineal insects in cactus pear genotypes in the seminarid region of Pernambuco. IX International Congress on Cactus Pear and Cochineal: CAM crops for a hotter and drier world, Proceedings. p.143.

Habibollahi, M. et al. (2020). Cloning, characterization and expression of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (CcPAL) from cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 18, 100253.

INMET (2020). Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Bancos de dados meteorológicos do INMET.

Luna, J. A. P. et al. (2018). Ciclo de vida y fecundidad de Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) en Opuntia ficus-indica (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae). Agrociencia, 52, 103-114.

Melo, L. G. L. et al. (2016). Indutores de resistência abióticos no controle da fusariose do abacaxi. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 51 (10), 1703-1709.

Pascholati, S. F., Souza, V. H. M., Cardoso Filho, J. A (2019). Indução de resistência por Trichoderma. In: Trichoderma: uso na agricultura. Meyer, M. C. Brasília, DF: Embrapa. 538 p. 235-254.

Peixoto, M. J. A. et al. (2018). Características agronômicas e composição química da palma forrageira em função de diferentes sistemas de plantio. Archivos de Zootecnia, 67 (257) 35-39.

Rahmatabadi, S. et al. (2019). Identification and characterization of a sterically robust phenylalanine ammonia-lyase among 481 natural isoforms through association of in silico and in vitro studies. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 122, 36-54.

Silva, J. A. T. et al. (2017). Antagonistic activity of Trichoderma spp. against Scytalidium lignicola CMM 1098 and antioxidant enzymatic activity in cassava. Phytoparasitica, 45, 219-225.

Silva, J. M. et al. (2018). Resistance inducers and biochemical mechanisms in the control of anthracnose in cowpea. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria, 45 (3), 290-300.

Silva, T. G. F. et al. (2015). Crescimento e produtividade de clones de palma forrageira no semiárido e relações com variáveis meteorológicas. Revista Caatinga, 28 (2) 10-18.

Sousa, S. G (2019) Análise temporal do comportamento da precipitação pluviométrica na Região Metropolitana do Cariri (CE), Brasil. Revista Geográfica da América Central, 2 (63), 319-340.

Spolti, P. et al. (2015). Modo de ação de fosfitos de potássio no controle da podridão olho de boi em maçã. Summa Phytopathologica, 41 (1), 42-48.

Stadnik, M. J.; Buchenauer, H. (2000). Inhibition of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase suppresses the resistance induced by benzothiadiazole in wheat to Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 57 (1), 25-34.

Tarazi, R. et al (2019). Biotechnological solutions for major cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) pathogens and pests. Biotechnology Research and Innovation, 3 (1), 19-26.

Wang, W. et al (2020). Induction of defense in cereals by 4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid suppresses insect pest populations and increases crop yields in the field. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117 (22), 12017-12028.

Zucker, M (1968). Sequential induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and a lyase-inactivating system in potato tuber disks. Plant Physiology, 43 (2), 365-374.




How to Cite

SILVA, R. M. da .; LIMA, E. J. de .; BARBOSA, M. A. P. .; SANTOS, W. L. dos .; SILVA, E. F. T. da .; BADJI, C. A. .; SOUZA-MOTTA, C. M. de .; OLIVEIRA, J. T. C. .; MOREIRA, K. A. . Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity in genotypes of Opuntia spp. against artificial infestation of Dactylopius opuntiae submitted to biotic and abiotic resistance inducers. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 5, p. e41610515106, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i5.15106. Disponível em: Acesso em: 29 jan. 2023.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences