Effects of lead poisoning in children- A narrative review

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i7.16616

Keywords:

Lead; Poisoning; Children; Sintomas.

Abstract

Objective: exposure of children to lead still poses a major health concern for public health agencies worldwide. This work aims to describe which are the symptoms most frequently associated with lead exposure in children, providing further basis to both researchers and policy makers to better guide future efforts aimed at addressing such issue. Methods: a systematized review of articles on the present topic published between June 2005 and February 2021 was carried out. Results: data described in the reviewed articles show a clear relationship between blood lead levels and hematopoietic and cognitive effects in children exposed to either low or high levels of lead. Concerning effects can be identified at blood lead levels above 4µg/dL, and the highest blood lead level reported was of 88.39 µg/dL. Conclusions: lead poisoning of children continues to be a serious public health issue worldwide, especially for those in South America, and health agencies and policy makers alike would benefit from more studies describing areas where lead exposure is high as well as describing how children have been responding to such exposure in the past years in order to better combat this issue.

References

Agência Nacional de Petróleo, G. N. e B. (ANP). (2020). Gasolina- PETROBRAS. https://petrobras.com.br/pt/nossas-atividades/produtos/automotivos/gasolina/

Ahmadi, S., Bot, B. Le, Zoumenou, R., Durand, S., Fiévet, N., Ayotte, P., Massougbodji, A., Alao, M. J., Cot, M., Glorennec, P., & Bodeau-Livinec, F. (2020). Follow-up of elevated blood lead levels and sources in a cohort of children in Benin. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(22), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228689

Altman, D. (2015). Principais itens para relatar Revisões sistemáticas e Meta-análises: A recomendação PRISMA. Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde, 24(2), 335–342. https://doi.org/10.5123/s1679-49742015000200017

Ansari, J. A., Mahdi, A. A., Malik, P. S., & Jafar, T. (2020). Blood lead levels in children living near an informal lead battery recycling workshop in Patna, Bihar. Journal of Health and Pollution, 10(25), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.5696/2156-9614-10.25.200308

Carlos Mauricio Hurtado, Myriam Gutiérrez, J. E. (2007). Aspectos clínicos y niveles de plomo en niños expuestos de manera paraocupacional en el proceso de reciclaje de baterías de automóviles en las localidades de Soacha y Bogotá, D.C. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 53(9), 1689–1699.

Charkiewicz, A. E., & Backstrand, J. R. (2020). Lead toxicity and pollution in Poland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(12), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124385

Chiodo, L. M., Jacobson, S. W., & Jacobson, J. L. (2004). Neurodevelopmental effects of postnatal lead exposure at very low levels. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 26(3), 359–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2004.01.010

Costa, C., Araujo, E., Olivieri, R. D., Ribeiro, M. I. F. C. A., & Oliveira, R. L. (2012). Casos paradigmáticos sobre contaminação provocada por chumbo em várias regiões do mundo. Santo Amaro, 191–221.

Dascanio, D., Fontaine, A. M. G., Maria, O., Rodrigues, P. R., & Prette, Z. A. P. Del. (2012). The intellectual and academic performance of adolescents contaminated by lead : relation with social skills Desempenho intelectual e acadêmico de adolescentes contaminados por chumbo : relação com as habilidades sociais El rendimiento intelectual y académ. 20(1), 45–59.

Dascanio, D., Prette, Z. A. P. Del, Rodrigues, O. M. P. R., & Prette, A. Del. (2016). Intoxicação infantil por chumbo: uma questão de saúde e de políticas públicas TT - Childhood lead poisoning: a health issue and public policy TT - Intoxicación infantil por plomo: una cuestión de salud y de políticas públicas. Psicol. Rev. (Belo Horizonte), 22(1), 90–111. http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-11682016000100007

Disalvo, L. et al. (n.d.). Plumbemia En Niños En La Ciudad de La Plata, Argentina y Su Relación Con la Deficiencia de Hierro y los Factores de Exposición Al Plomo.

Do, a E., Da, C., Jorge, P., & Figueiredo, M. (2002). 5o Congresso de Pós-Graduação A ELIMINAÇÃO DO CHUMBO DA GASOLINA. 1–6.

Europeu, P. (n.d.). Proibição de Chumbo UE. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+WQ+E-2009-0674+0+DOC+XML+V0//PT

Freudenrich, C. (2009). How Lead Works. How Lead Works. https://science.howstuffworks.com/lead.htm

Fuentes, T. R. (2019). Comportamiento del plomo sérico en niños expuestos de la ciudad de Camagüey. Revista Archivo Médico de Camagüey, 23(1), 64–74.

Gao, Z., Cao, J., Yan, J., Wang, J., Cai, S., & Yan, C. (2017). Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors among Preschool Children in a Lead Polluted Area in Taizhou, China. BioMed Research International, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4934198

Garza, A., Vega, R., & Soto, E. (2006). Cellular mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity. Medical Science Monitor, 12(3), 57–65.

Goel, A. D., & Chowgule, R. V. (2019). Outbreak investigation of lead neurotoxicity in children from artificial jewelry cottage industry. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 24(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12199-019-0777-9

Hou, S., Yuan, L., Jin, P., Ding, B., Qin, N., Li, L., Liu, X., Wu, Z., Zhao, G., & Deng, Y. (2013). A clinical study of the effects of lead poisoning on the intelligence and neurobehavioral abilities of children. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, 10(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4682-10-13

IBGE. (n.d.). As crianças no Brasil. https://educa.ibge.gov.br/criancas/brasil/nosso-povo/20785-as-criancas-no-brasil.html

Keller, B., Faciano, A., Tsega, A., & Ehrlich, J. (2017). Epidemiologic Characteristics of Children with Blood Lead Levels ≥45 μg/dL. Journal of Pediatrics, 180, 229–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.09.017

Landrigan, P. J., Schechter, C. B., Lipton, J. M., Fahs, M. C., & Schwartz, J. (2002). CHILDREN ’ S HEALTH Environmental Pollutants and Disease in American Children : Estimates of. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(7), 721–728.

Lanphear, B. P., Hornung, R., Khoury, J., Yolton, K., Baghurst, P., Bellinger, D. C., Canfield, R. L., Dietrich, K. N., Bornschein, R., Greene, T., Rothenberg, S. J., Needleman, H. L., Schnaas, L., Wasserman, G., Graziano, J., & Roberts, R. (2005). Low-level environmental lead exposure and children’s intellectual function: An international pooled analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(7), 894–899. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7688

Liu, K. S., Hao, J. H., Zeng, Y., Dai, F. C., & Gu, P. Q. (2013). Neurotoxicity and biomarkers of lead exposure: A review. Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, 28(3), 178–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-9294(13)60045-0

Mayans, L. (2019). Lead poisoning in children. Social Work (United States), 19(4), 509. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/19.4.509-a

Ministério da Saúde. (2017a). Chumbo. https://www.gov.br/saude/pt-br#:~:text=A exposição humana ao chumbo,tintas%2C maquiagem%2C etc).

Ministério da Saúde. (2017b). Efeitos do Chumbo. https://www.gov.br/saude/pt-br#:~:text=Além disso%2C outros sinais e,pequeno aumento da pressão arterial%3B

Ministério do desenvolvimento, Indústria e comércio exterior. Instituto nacional de metrologia, qualidade e tecnologia – I. (2015). Relatório De Análise De Chumbo Em Tintas. 1–23. http://www.inmetro.gov.br/consumidor/produtos/chumbo-em-tintas.pdf

Moreira, F. R. J. C. M. (2004). A cinética do chumbo no organismo humano e sua importância para a saúde Lead kinetics in human body and its significance to health. 9(1), 167–181.

Moreira, F. R., & Moreira, J. C. (2004). Os efeitos do chumbo sobre o organismo humano e seu significado para a saúde. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 15(2), 119–129. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-49892004000200007

Mostafa, G. A., El-Shahawi, H. H., & Mokhtar, A. (2009). Blood lead levels in Egyptian children from high and low lead-polluted areas: Impact on cognitive function. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 120(1), 30–37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.2009.01155.x

Needleman, H. (2004). Lead poisoning. Annual Review of Medicine, 55(1), 209–222. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.med.55.091902.103653

Padula, N. A. de M. R., Abreu, M. H. de, Miyazaki, L. C. Y., & Tomita, N. E. (2006). Intoxicação por chumbo e saúde infantil: ações intersetoriais para o enfrentamento da questão. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 22(1), 163–171. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-311x2006000100017

Page, M. J., McKenzie, J. E., Bossuyt, P. M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T. C., Mulrow, C. D., Shamseer, L., Tetzlaff, J. M., Akl, E. A., Brennan, S. E., Chou, R., Glanville, J., Grimshaw, J. M., Hróbjartsson, A., Lalu, M. M., Li, T., Loder, E. W., Mayo-Wilson, E., McDonald, S., … Moher, D. (2021). The PRISMA 2020 statement: An updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. The BMJ, 372. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n71

Planejamento, N. De, & Urbano, R. (2004). Projeto de Lei no 3.460, de 2004. 2004, 1–39.

Prevention, U. C. for D. C. and. (2020). Blood Lead Reference Value. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/data/blood-lead-reference-value.htm

Ramos, W., Munive, L., Alfaro, M., Calderón, M., Gonzáles, I., & Núñez, Y. (2009). Intoxicación plúmbica crónica : una revisión de la problemática ambiental en el Perú Chronic lead poisoning : a review of the environmental peruvian problem. 13, 1–8.

Riera, N. M., Feldman, G., Granger, S., Chain, S., & Soria, N. (2012). Lead intoxication: Clinic and diagnostic evaluation in children. Revista Ciencias de La Salud, 10(SPECIAL ISSUE), 9–15.

Roberts, J. R., Allen, C. L., Ligon, C., & Reigart, J. R. (2013). Are children still at risk for lead poisoning? Clinical Pediatrics, 52(2), 125–130. https://doi.org/10.1177/0009922812464549

Schifer, T. D. S., Junior, S. B., & Montano, M. A. E. (2005). Aspectos toxicológicos do chumbo. Informa, 17(5/6), 67–72.

Services, D. of H. and H. (2002). Toxicological Profile for Lead. ATSDR’s Toxicological Profiles, August. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420061888_ch106

Souza, A. M., & Tavares, C. F. F. (2009). Chumbo e anemia. Medicina, 42(3), 327–330. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2176-7262.v42i3p337-340

Trabalho, M. da J. e S. P. de saúde e segurança no. (2020). NR 7 ATUALIZADA. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 21(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101607%0Ahttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.02.034%0Ahttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/cjag.12228%0Ahttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2020.104773%0Ahttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.04.011%0Ahttps://doi.o

UNICEF. (2020). The Toxic Truth: Children’s exposure to lead pollution undermines a generation of future potential. The Toxic Truth: Children’s Exposure to Lead Pollution Undermines a Generation of Future Potential. https://www.unicef.org/reports/toxic-truth-childrens-exposure-to-lead-pollution-2020

Downloads

Published

25/06/2021

How to Cite

MOTA, K. C. de O.; PEDROSO, V. C. M.; ROCHA, G. H. O.; GROTTO, D.; BARIONI, Éric D.; OLIVEIRA, R. T. D. de. Effects of lead poisoning in children- A narrative review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 7, p. e37410716616, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i7.16616. Disponível em: https://www.rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/16616. Acesso em: 21 jul. 2024.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences