Elimination of Giardia muris in naturally infected murine experimental model: Complementary treatment





Giardiasis; Camellia sinensis; Mice.


Objective: This study proposed a complementary treatment for murine giardiasis comparing Black tea (CPR) (Camellia sinensis) with Metronidazole (MT), Fembendazole (FB) and Metronidazole in association with Sulfadimetoxin (Mts) in male Swiss mice (30) divided into six groups (CPR, MT, FB/MT, Mts, CPR/Mts and Untreated Control - C+) with five animals each. Methodology: The treatment was intragastric, for 7 days 1x/day and group C+ received only water. The experiments were conducted blindly, controlled, randomized, and repeated once with same number of animals. Clinical parameters (weight, water consumption, feed and excreta elimination) were also evaluated. Results: The animals in the CPR/MtS and MtS groups and in the CPR group presented negative parasitological and molecular results for G. muris on the 5th and 7th day after starting treatment, respectively. The animals in groups FB/MT, MT and C+ continued to eliminate cysts after the end of treatment.  The animals of group C+ presented significant weight loss in relation to the animals of the other groups and consumed less feed (p=0.0001) in relation to the animals of groups CPR/MtS, FB/MT and MT. Conclusion: The complementary treatment with black tea alone or associated with MtS was effective to eliminate G. muris, being a promising strategy for murine experimental model. The untreated animals that maintained high parasite load showed significant changes in clinical parameters, showing the importance of eliminating pre-existing infection and increasing the reliability of the results of experiments using these animals.


Alizadeh, A., Ranjbar, M., Kashani, K. M., Taheri, M. M., & Bodaghi, M. (2006). Albendazole versus metronidazole in the treatment of patients with giardiasis in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal = La Revue de Sante de La Mediterranee Orientale = Al-Majallah Al-Sihhiyah Li-Sharq Al-Mutawassit, 12(5), 548–554. http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/17333792

Andrade, S. F. (2002). Manual de Terapêutica Veterinária (2o ed). Rocca.

Argüello-García, R., Leitsch, D., Skinner-Adams, T., & Ortega-Pierres, M. G. (2020). Chapter Six - Drug resistance in Giardia: Mechanisms and alternative treatments for Giardiasis. In M. G. B. T.-A. in P. Ortega-Pierres (Org.), Giardia and Giardiasis, Part B (Vol. 107, p. 201–282). Academic Press. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2019.11.003

Bahadur, V., Mastronicola, D., Singh, A. K., Tiwari, H. K., Pucillo, L. P., Sarti, P., Singh, B. K., & Giuffrè, A. (2015). Antigiardial activity of novel triazolyl-quinolone-based chalcone derivatives: when oxygen makes the difference. Frontiers in Microbiology, 6, 256. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00256

Bai, Z., Chen, Y., Li, F., Zhou, Y., Yin, H., & Ai, S. (2019). Electrochemical aptasensor for sulfadimethoxine detection based on the triggered cleavage activity of nuclease P1 by aptamer-target complex. Talanta, 204, 409–414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.06.035

Barbosa, E., Calzada, F., & Campos, R. (2007). In vivo antigiardial activity of three flavonoids isolated of some medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 109(3), 552–554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.09.009

Bezagio, R. C., Colli, C. M., Romera, L. I. L., de Almeida, C. R., Ferreira, É. C., Mattia, S., & Gomes, M. L. (2020). Improvement in cyst recovery and molecular detection of Giardia duodenalis from stool samples. Molecular Biology Reports, 47(2), 1233–1239. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-019-05224-5

Bezagio, R. C., Colli, C. M., Romera, L. I. L., Ferreira, É. C., Falavigna-Guilherme, A. L., & Gomes, M. L. (2017). Synergistic effects of fenbendazole and metronidazole against Giardia muris in Swiss mice naturally infected. Parasitology Research, 116(3), 939–944. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-5367-9

Boyanova, L., Ilieva, J., Gergova, G., Vladimirov, B., Nikolov, R., & Mitov, I. (2015). Honey and green/black tea consumption may reduce the risk of Helicobacter pylori infection. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 82(1), 85–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2015.03.001

Brandelli, C. L. C., Giordani, R. B., De Carli, G. A., & Tasca, T. (2009). Indigenous traditional medicine: in vitro anti-giardial activity of plants used in the treatment of diarrhea. Parasitology Research, 104(6), 1345–1349. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-009-1330-3

Chorilli, M., Michelin, D. C., & Salgado, H. R. . (2007). Animais de laboratório: o camundongo. Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada, 28(1), 11–23. http://serv-bib.fcfar.unesp.br/seer/index.php/Cien_Farm/article/viewArticle/340

Cotton, J. A., Beatty, J. K., & Buret, A. G. (2011). Host parasite interactions and pathophysiology in Giardia infections. International Journal for Parasitology, 41(9), 925–933. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2011.05.002

Dreesen, L., De Bosscher, K., Grit, G., Staels, B., Lubberts, E., Bauge, E., & Geldhof, P. (2014). Giardia muris infection in mice is associated with a protective interleukin 17A response and induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Infection and Immunity, 82(8), 3333–3340. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01536-14

Fallahi, S., Rostami, A., Delfan, B., Pournia, Y., & Rashidipour, M. (2016). Effect of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica, and Allium sativum extracts on Giardia lamblia cysts compared with metronidazole in vitro. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 40(4), 1204–1209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-015-0650-8

Faust, E. C., D’Antoni, J. S., Odom, V., Miller, M. J., Peres, C., Sawitz, W., Thomen, L. F., Tobie, J., & Walker, J. H. (1938). A Critical Study of Clinical Laboratory Technics for the Diagnosis of Protozoan Cysts and Helminth Eggs in Feces: I. Preliminary Communication. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine, s1-18(2), 169–183. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.1938.s1-18.169

Hayat, K., Iqbal, H., Malik, U., Bilal, U., & Mushtaq, S. (2015). Tea and Its Consumption: Benefits and Risks. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(7), 939–954. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2012.678949

Keith, C. L., Radecki, S. V, & Lappin, M. R. (2003). Evaluation of fenbendazole for treatment of Giardia infection in cats concurrently infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 64(8), 1027–1029. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2003.64.1027

Lalle, M. (2010). Giardiasis in the post genomic era: treatment, drug resistance and novel therapeutic perspectives. Infectious Disorders Drug Targets, 10(4), 283–294. https://doi.org/10.2174/187152610791591610

Leitsch, D. (2015). Drug Resistance in the Microaerophilic Parasite Giardia lamblia. Current Tropical Medicine Reports, 2(3), 128–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40475-015-0051-1

Leitsch, D. (2019). A review on metronidazole: an old warhorse in antimicrobial chemotherapy. Parasitology, 146(9), 1167–1178. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182017002025

Li, S., Lo, C.-Y., Pan, M.-H., Lai, C.-S., & Ho, C.-T. (2013). Black tea: chemical analysis and stability. Food & Function, 4(1), 10–18. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2fo30093a

Marques, M. A. P. (2002). Controle Parasitológico. In A. Andrade, S. C. Pinto, & R. S. de Oliveira (Orgs.), Animais de laboratório: criação e experimentação (p. 303–315). Fiocruz.

Martin, D. A., & Bolling, B. W. (2015). A review of the efficacy of dietary polyphenols in experimental models of inflammatory bowel diseases. Food & Function, 6(6), 1773–1786. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5FO00202H

Martínez-Espinosa, R., Argüello-García, R., Saavedra, E., & Ortega-Pierres, G. (2015). Albendazole induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis. Frontiers in Microbiology, 6, 800. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00800

Monis, P. T., Andrews, R. H., Mayrhofer, G., & Ey, P. L. (1999). Molecular systematics of the parasitic protozoan Giardia intestinalis. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 16(9), 1135–1144. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026204

Mørch, K., Hanevik, K., Robertson, L. J., Strand, E. A., & Langeland, N. (2008). Treatment-ladder and genetic characterisation of parasites in refractory giardiasis after an outbreak in Norway. The Journal of Infection, 56(4), 268–273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2008.01.013

Naveed, M., BiBi, J., Kamboh, A. A., Suheryani, I., Kakar, I., Fazlani, S. A., FangFang, X., Kalhoro, S. A., Yunjuan, L., Kakar, M. U., Abd El-Hack, M. E., Noreldin, A. E., Zhixiang, S., LiXia, C., & XiaoHui, Z. (2018). Pharmacological values and therapeutic properties of black tea (Camellia sinensis): A comprehensive overview. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 100, 521–531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.02.048

O’Handley, R. M., Cockwill, C., Jelinski, M., McAllister, T. A., & Olson, M. E. (2000). Effects of repeat fenbendazole treatment in dairy calves with giardiosis on cyst excretion, clinical signs and production. Veterinary Parasitology, 89(3), 209–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-4017(00)00200-4

Oteiza, P. I., Fraga, C. G., Mills, D. A., & Taft, D. H. (2018). Flavonoids and the gastrointestinal tract: Local and systemic effects. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 61, 41–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2018.01.001

Pei, R., Liu, X., & Bolling, B. (2020). Flavonoids and gut health. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 61, 153–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2019.12.018

Pereira, A. M. (2002). Principais doenças dos camundongos, ratos e hamsters. In A. Andrade, S. C. Pinto, & R. S. de Oliveira (Orgs.), Animais de laboratório: criação e experimentação (p. 127–137). Fiocruz.

Ritchie, L. S. (1948). An ether sedimentation technique for routine stool examinations. Bulletin of the U.S. Army Medical Department. United States. Army. Medical Department, 8(4), 326. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18911509

Solaymani-Mohammadi, S., Genkinger, J. M., Loffredo, C. A., & Singer, S. M. (2010). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of albendazole compared with metronidazole as treatments for infections with Giardia duodenalis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 4(5), e682. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000682

Tomaszewska, E., Winiarska-Mieczan, A., & Dobrowolski, P. (2015). Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white t. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 67(5–6), 331–339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2015.02.005

Uda-Shimoda, C. F., Colli, C. M., Pavanelli, M. F., Falavigna-Guilherme, A. L., & Gomes, M. L. (2014). Simplified protocol for DNA extraction and amplification of 2 molecular markers to detect and type Giardia duodenalis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 78(1), 53–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2013.09.008

Venkatesan, P., Finch, R. G., & Wakelin, D. (1997). A comparison of mucosal inflammatory responses to Giardia muris in resistant B10 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Parasite Immunology, 19(3), 137–143. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3024.1997.d01-189.x



How to Cite

ALMEIDA, C. R. de .; BEZAGIO , R. C.; COLLI, C. M.; ROMERA, . L. I. L.; GOMES , M. L. Elimination of Giardia muris in naturally infected murine experimental model: Complementary treatment. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 7, p. e60010716996, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i7.16996. Disponível em: https://www.rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/16996. Acesso em: 7 dec. 2023.



Health Sciences