Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae) leaf and flower essential oils to control Rhipicephalus microplus Canestrini (Arachnida: Ixodidae) in the free-living stage




Wild rosemary; Cattle tick; Nerolidol; Spathulenol; Ex situ test.


Baccharis dracunculifolia, native to Brazil and the main source of “green propolis”, has been reported with several biological activities, and may be a source of bovine tick control substituting synthetic acaricides. Objective: to evaluate the in vitro and ex situ acaricidal activity of B. dracunculifolia leaf and flower essential oils against Rhipicephalus microplus. Methodology: the essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by a gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry; the acaricidal activity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro against adult females and against the egg hatchability; moreover, the acaricidal activity against tick larvae was evaluated in vitro and ex situ. Results: the major class of the essential oils was oxygenated sesquiterpene (55.1% leaves 50.4% flowers) and the main compounds were (21.5% leaves; 20.6% flowers) and spathulenol (21.8% leaves; 20.3% flowers). The essential oil at 500 mg/mL was effective to control egg hatchability with a reduction of egg laying capacity and decrease of number of adult ticks and larvae. The larvicidal activity of the essential oil had LC99.9 from 35 to 37 mg/mL by probit analysis, and the essential oil from 11 to 14 mg/mL presented 85 to 95% of treatment efficiency in the ex situ test. Conclusion: B. dracunculifolia leaf and flower essential oils are stable and have application potential to control bovine ticks.


Aboulaila, M., Sivakumar, T., Yokoyama, N. & Igarashi, I. (2010). Inhibitory effect of terpene nerolidol on the growth of Babesia parasites. Parasitology International, 59(2), 278-282. doi:10.1016/j.parint.2010.02.006

Adams, R. P. (2017). Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 41nd ed. Allured: Carol Stream.

Alencar, S. M., Aguiar, C. L., Paredes-Guzmán, J. & Park, Y. K. (2005). Chemical composition of Baccharis dracunculifolia, the botanical source of propolis from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ciência Rural, 35(4), 909-915. doi. 10.1590/S0103-84782005000400025

Amaral, A. C. F., Ramos, A. S., Pena, M. R., Ferreira, J. L. P., Menezes, J. M. S., Vasconcelos, G. J. N, Silva, N. M. & Silva, J. R. A. (2017). Acaricidal activity of Derris floribunda essential oil and its main constituent. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 7(9), 791-796. doi: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.006

Araújo, L. X., Novato, T. P. L., Zeringota, V., Matos, R. S., Senra, T. O. S., Maturano, R., Daemon, E., Monteiro, C. M. O. & Prata, M. C. A. (2015). Acaricidal activity of thymol against larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) under semi-natural conditions. Parasitology Research, 114(9), 3271-3276. doi:10.1007/s00436-015-4547-3

Araújo, M. J., Câmara, C. A., Born, F. S., Moraes, M. M. & Badji, C. A. (2012). Acaricidal activity and repellency of essential oil from Piper aduncum and its components against Tetranychus urticae. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 57(2), 139-155.

Bispo, J. L. P., Almeida, E. C. de, & Nunes, D. M. (2020). Effect of crude extract of genipap (Genipa americana) on the control of the bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Research, Society and Development, 9(9), e481997308.

Bittencourt, V. R. E. P., Bahiense, T. C., Fernandes, E. K. K. & Souza, E. J. (2003). In vivo action Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879) Sorokin, 1883 sprayed over Brachiaria decumbens infested with Boophilus microplus larvae (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae). Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 12, 38-42.

Bonett, L. P. & Cerri, C. S. (2011). Fungitoxicidade do óleo essencial de Baccharis dracunculifolia (DC.) sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (PENZ.). I. C. CESUMAR, 13(2), 151-159.

Borges, L. M. F., Souza, L. A. D. & Barbosa, C. S. (2011). Perspectives for the use of plant extracts to control the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 20(2), 89-96.

Brasil (1997). Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Portaria nº 48, de 12 de maio de 1997. Regulamento Técnico, em anexo, elaborado pelo Departamento de Defesa Animal a ser observado na produção, no controle e no emprego de antiparasitários de uso veterinário. Diário Oficial da União, Brasília, DF, 16 de maio de 1997.

Búfalo, M. C., Figueiredo, A. S., Sousa, J. P. B., Candeias, J. M. G., Bastos, J. K. & Sforcin, J. M. (2009). Anti-poliovirus activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia and propolis by cell viability determination and real-time PCR. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 107(5), 1669-1680.

Callejon, D. R., Feitosa, L. G. P., Da Silva, D. B., Bizaro, A. C., Guaratini, T., Lopes, J. N. C., Pannuti, L. E. R., Baldin, E. L. L., Junior, M. G., Cunha, F. Q., Ferreira, S. H. & Lopes, N. P. (2016). Chemical composition and acaricidal activity against Tetranychus urticae of essential oil from Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl.) Kuntze. Revista Virtual de Química, 8(1), 35-42.

Camargos, H. S., Moreira, R. A., Mendanha, S. A., Fernandes, K. S., Dorta, M. L. & Alonso, A. (2014). Terpenes increase the lipid dynamics in the Leishmania plasma membrane at concentrations similar to their IC50 values. PLoS ONE, 9(8), 1-9.

Castro, K. N. C., Canuto, K. M., Brito, E. S., Costa-Júnior, L. M., Andrade, I. M., Magalhães, J. A. & Barros, D. M. A. (2018). In vitro efficacy of essential oils with different concentrations of 1,8-cineole against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 27(2), 203-210.

Cazella, L. N., Glamoclija, J., Soković, M., Gonçalves, J. E., Linde, G. A., Colauto, N. B. & Gazim, Z. C. (2019). Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae) aerial parts at flowering period. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10, 27.

Chaaban, A., Martins, C. E. N., Bretanha, L. C., Micke, G. A., Carrer, A. R., Rosa, N. F., Ferreira, L. & Molento, M. B. (2017). Insecticide activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia essential oil against Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Natural Product Research, 32(24), 2954-2958.

Chagas, A. C. S., Barros, L. D., Cotinguiba, F., Furlan, M., Giglioti, R., Oliveira, M. C. S. & Bizzo, H. R. (2012). In vitro efficacy of plant extracts and synthesized substances on Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitology Research, 110(1), 295-303.

Chagas, A. C. S., Leite, R. C., Furlong, J., Prates, H. T. & Passos, W. M. (2003). Sensibility of Boophilus microplus tick to solvents. Ciência Rural, 33(1), 109-114.

Chagas, A. C. S., Oliveira, M. C. S., Giglioti, R., Santana, R. C. M., Bizzo, H. R., Gama, P. E. & Chaves, F. C. M. (2016). Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Ticks Tick-borne Diseases, 7(3), 427-432.

Di Campli, E., Di Bartolomeo, S., Pizzi, P. D., Di Giulio, M., Grande, R., Nostro, A. & Cellini, L. (2012). Activity of tea tree oil and nerolidol alone or in combination against Pediculus capitis (head lice) and its eggs. Parasitology Research, 111(5), 1985-1992.

Drummond, R. O., Ernst, S. T., Trevino, J. L., Gladney, W. J. & Graham, O. H. (1973). Boophilus annulatus and Boophilus microplus: laboratory tests of insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 66(1), 130-133.

El Amri, J., Elbadaoui, K., Zair, T., Bouharb, H., Chakir, S. & Alaoui, T. I. (2014). Etude l’activité antibactérienne des huiles essentielles de Teucrium capitatium L et de l’extrait de Siléne vulgaris sur les différentes souches testées. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 82, 7481-7492.

Eldoksch, H. A., Ayad, F. A. & El-Sebae, A. K. H. (2009). Acaricidal activity of plant extracts and their main terpenoids on the two- spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Alexandria Science Exchange Journal, 30(3), 344-349.

Enan, E. (2013). Compositions for controlling insects. US Patent Application, n. US 13/020,794.

Fernandes, F. F., Bessa, P. A. D. & Freitas, E. P. S. (2008). Evaluation of activity of the crude ethanolic extract of Magonia pubescens St. Hil (Sapindaceae) against larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 51(6), 1147–1152.

Flynn, P. C., Kaufman, W. R. (2011). Female ixodid ticks grow endocuticle during the rapid phase of engorgement. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 53, 167-178.

Fonseca, M. C. M., Lehner, M. S., Gonçalves, M. G., Paula Júnior, T. J., Silva, A. F., Bonfim, F. P. G. & Prado, A. L. (2015). Potential of essential oils from medicinal plants to control plant pathogens. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 17(1), 45-50.

Furlong, J. & Prata, M. C. A. (2005). Conhecimento básico para o controle do carrapato dos bovinos. In: FURLONG, J. (Org.). Carrapatos: Problemas e Soluções. Juiz de Fora: Embrapa Gado de Leite, 9-20.

Furlong, J. (1998). Carrapato dos bovinos: conheça bem para controlar melhor. Embrapa Gado de Leite-Circular Técnica (INFOTECA-E).

Gonzales, J. C. (1974). O carrapato do boi: vida, resistência e controle. Mestre Jou: São Paulo.

Grisi, L., Leite, R. C., Martins, J. R. S., Barros, A. T. M., Andreotti, R., Cançado, P. H. D., León, A. A. P., Pereira, J. B. & Villela, H. S. (2014). Reassessment of the potential economic impact of cattle parasites in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 23(2), 150-156.

Gross, A. D., Temeyer, K. B., Day, T. A. & Léon, A. A. P. (2017). Interaction of plant essential oil terpenoids with the southern cattle tick tyramine receptor: A potential biopesticide target. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 263, 1-6.

Heiden, G. & Schneider, A. (2015). Baccharis. In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro. Disponível em: < >

IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Indicadores. (2019). IBGE: Estatística da Produção Pecuária - março de 2019. IBGE: Rio de Janeiro. <>

Kang, J. S., Kim, E., Lee, S. H. & Park, I. K. (2013). Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, by phytochemicals from plant essential oils. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 105(1), 50-6.

Kennedy, K. & Schmidt, J. (2017). Lice control composition and method. Patent Application, n. US2016029625. National Center for Biotechnology Information. <>

Klafke, G., Webster, A., Dall Agnol, B., Pradel, E., Silva, J., La Canal, L. H., Becker, M., Osório, M. F., Mansson, M., Barreto, R., Scheffer, R., Souza, U. A., Corassini, V. B., Santos, J., Reck, J. & Martins, J. R. (2017). Multiple resistance to acaricides in field populations of Rhipicephalus microplus from Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil. Ticks Tick-Borne Diseases, 8(1), 73-80.

Lage, T. C. A., Montanari, R. M., Fernandes, S. A., Monteiro, C. M. O., Senra, T. O. S., Zeringota, V., Matos, R.S. & Daemon, E. (2015). Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (1836) and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Experimental Parasitology, 148, 24-29.

Leite, R. C., Labruna, M. B., Oliveira, P. R., Monteiro, A. M. F. & Caetano Junior, J. (1995). In vitro susceptibility of engorged females from diferente populations of Boophilus microplus to commercial acaricides. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 4(2), 283-294.

Lopes, N. P., Kato, M. J., Andrade, E. H. A., Maia, J. G., Yoshida, M., Planchart, A. R. & Katzin, A. M. (1999). Antimalarial use of volatile oil from leaves of Virola surinamensis (Rol.) Warb. by Waiãpi Amazon Indians. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 67(3), 313-319.

Luchesi, L. A., Paulus, D., Busso, C., Frata, M. T. & Oliveira, J. B. (2020). Chemical composition, antifungal and antioxidant activity of essential oils from Baccharis dracunculifolia and Pogostemon cablin against Fusarium graminearum. Natural Product Research, 1-4.

Martins, J. R., Evans, D. E., Ceresér, D. H. & Corrêa, B. L. (2002). Partial strategic tick control within a herd of European breed cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 27, 241-251.

Massignani, J. J., Lemos, M., Maistro, E. L., Schaphauser, H. P., Jorge, R. F., Sousa, J. P. B., Bastos, J. K. & Andrade, S. F. (2009). Antiulcerogenic activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia on different experimental models in rats. Phytotherapy Research, 23(10), 1355-1360.

Miranda, C. A. S. F., Cardoso, M. G., Batista, L. R., Rodrigues, L. M. A. & Figueiredo, A. C. S. 2016. Essential oils from leaves of various species: antioxidant and antibacterial properties on growth in pathogenic species. Revista Ciência Agronômica, 47(1), 213-220.

Morais, L. A. S. (2009). Influência dos fatores abióticos na composição química dos óleos essenciais. Horticultura Brasileira, 27, S4050-S4063.

Park, Y. K., Paredes-Guzmán, J. F., Aguiar, C. L., Alencar, S. M. & Fujiwara, F. Y. (2004). Chemical constituents in Baccharis dracunculifolia as the main botanical source of South-eastern Brazilian propolis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(5), 1100-1103.

Parreira, N. A., Magalhães, L. G., Morais, D. R., Caixeta, S. C., de Sousa, J. P., Bastos, J. K., Cunha, W. R., Silva, M. L. A., Nanayakkara, N. P. D., Rodrigues, V. & da Silva Filho, A. A. (2010). Antiprotozoal, schistosomicidal, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 7(4), 993-1001.

Pereira, A. S., Shitsuka, D. M., Parreira, F. B. & Shitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologia da pesquisa científica [recurso eletrônico – 1. ed. [eBook]. Santa Maria. Ed. UAB / NTE / UFSM. Available at:

Pereira, C. A., Costa, A. C. B. P., Liporoni, P. C. S., Rego, M. A. & Jorge, A. O. C. (2016). Antibacterial activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia in planktonic cultures and biofilms of Streptococcus mutans. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 9(3), 324-330.

Pereira, C. A., Costa, A. C. B. P., Machado, A. K. S., Beltrame Júnior, M., Zöllner, M. S. A. C., Junqueira, J. C. & Jorge, A. L. C. (2011). Enzymatic activity, sensitivity to antifungal drugs and Baccharis dracunculifolia essential oil by Candida strains isolated from the oral cavities of breastfeeding infants and in their mothers’ mouths and nipples. Mycopathologia, 171(2), 103-109.

Powell, R. T. & Reid, T. J. (1982). Project tick control. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 108, 279-300.

Queiroga, C. L., Cavalcante, M. Q., Ferraz, P. C., Coser, R. N., Sartoratto, A. & Magalhães, P.M. (2014). High Speed countercurrent chromatography as a tool to isolate nerolidol from the Baccharis dracunculifolia volatile oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 26(5), 334-337.

Ramírez, C., Ibarra, F., Pérez, H. I., Manjarrez, N., Salgado, H. J. & Ortega L. (2016). Assessment and determination of LC50 of carvacrol and salicylic acid analogues with acaricide activity in larvae and adult ticks of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Parasite Epidemiology and Control, 1(2), 72-77.

Reginato, C. Z., Cadore, G. C., Menezes, F. R., Sangioni, L. A. & Vogel, F. S. F. (2017). Efficacy of commercial synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates associations used to control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Southern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 26(4), 500-504.

Ribeiro, V. L. S., Santos, J. C., Bordignon, S. A. L., Apel, M. A., Henriques, A. T., Von Poser, G. L. (2010). Acaricidal properties of the essential oil from Hesperozygis ringens (Lamiaceae) on the cattle tick Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Bioresource Technology. 101(7), 2506-2509.

Robbertse, L., Baron, S., Merwe, N. A., Madder, M., Stoltsz, W. H. & Maritz-Olivier, C. (2016). Genetic diversity, acaricide resistance status and evolutionary potential of a Rhipicephalus microplus population from a disease-controlled cattle farming area in South Africa. Ticks Tick-Borne Diseases, 7(4), 595-603.

Romero-Salas, D., Mira, A., Mosqueda, J., García-Vázquez, Z., Hidalgo-Ruiz, M., Vela, N. A. O., León, A. A. P., Florin-Christensen, M. & Schnittger, L. (2016). Molecular and serological detection of Babesia bovis- and Babesia bigemina-infection in bovines and water buffaloes raised jointly in an endemic field. Veterinary Parasitology, 217, 101-107.

Salazar, G. J. T., Sousa, J. P., Lima, C. N. F., Lemos, I. C. S., Silva, A. R. P., Freitas, T. S., Coutinho, H. D. M., Silva, L. E., Amaral, W. & Deschamps, C. (2018). Phytochemical characterization of the Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae) essential oil and antibacterial activity evaluation. Industrial Crops and Products, 122, 591-595.

Shaker, E. M. & Elsharkawy, E. E. (2015). Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw buffalo milk from agroindustrial areas in Assiut, Egypt. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 39(1), 433-440.

Silva, J. B., Fonseca, A. H. & Barbosa, J. D. (2015). Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 35, 38-41.

Silva, M. P. N., Oliveira, G. L. S., Carvalho, R. B. F., Sousa, D. P., Freitas, R. M., Pinto, P. L. S. & Moraes, J. (2014). Antischistosomal activity of the terpene nerolidol. Molecules, 19(3), 3793-3803. doi: 10.3390/molecules19033793

Teruel, G. M., Santos, M. S. P., Gomes, I. T., Astrauskas, J. P., Nagashima, J. C., Sacco, S. R., Avanza, M. F. B. & Batista, J. C. (2009). Anaplasmose bovina – relato de caso. Revista Científica Eletrônica de Medicina Veterinária, 7(13), 1679-7353.

Trindade, J. P. P., Facioni, G. & Borba, M. F. S. (2007). Espécies vegetais de ocorrência em pastagens naturais dos assentamentos da reforma agrária na região de Bagé, RS. Embrapa Pecuária Sul: Bagé.




How to Cite

CAZELLA, L. N.; OLIVEIRA, H. L. de M. de; BORTOLUCCI, W. de C.; RAHAL, I. L.; BARETTA, I. P.; GONÇALVES, J. E.; PIAU JUNIOR, R.; FERNANDEZ, C. M. M.; LINDE, G. A.; COLAUTO, N. B.; GAZIM, Z. C. Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae) leaf and flower essential oils to control Rhipicephalus microplus Canestrini (Arachnida: Ixodidae) in the free-living stage. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 9, n. 10, p. e5049108788, 2020. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v9i10.8788. Disponível em: Acesso em: 15 aug. 2022.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences