Gynecomasty: literature review and clinical aspects




Gynecomastia; Etiology; Diagnosis; Breast.


Introduction: Gynecomastia is the benign development of the male breast. It has a physiological or pathological origin, as a consequence of an imbalance between the amounts of estrogen and androgen. It can generate discomfort, mastalgia, tenderness and enlargement of the breasts. Objectives: To carry out a literature review on the etiology of gynecomastia, its presentation characteristics and diagnosis. Method: A bibliographic survey was conducted based on an active search for scientific articles in the PubMed, Scielo and LILACS databases, with a time frame from 2015 to 2020. The research was carried out using the descriptors (DeCS) gynecomastia, etiology, diagnosis and breast. In the 3 databases, 79 articles were found. Of these, 12 were selected, which include the etiology of gynecomastia, presentation and evolution, in addition to the diagnosis. Articles that addressed pseudogynecomastia, the relationship between gynecomastia and the prognosis of patients with tumors, other breast lesions and adverse effects of drugs that cause gynecomastia were excluded. Results: The most affected age group is between 50 and 69 years old, with an incidence of 72%. The pubertal phase is the most prevalent of the physiological periods. In the senile period, contributions to gynecomastia come from hypogonadism, decreased testosterone concentration, altered LH and maintained estradiol values. Medical history and physical examination, with palpation of the breasts, are essential to establish the diagnosis. Conclusion: Gynecomastia is a benign condition. It is necessary to differentiate correctly between physiological and pathological. Individualized follow-up, with surgical indication in some cases, is essential to promote well-being and personal acceptance.


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How to Cite

MATOS, L. L. P. .; SOUZA, A. L. R. de . Gynecomasty: literature review and clinical aspects. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 4, p. e4310413684, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i4.13684. Disponível em: Acesso em: 2 feb. 2023.



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