Use of corn ethanol co-product in poultry feed: Review




Alternative food; DDGS; HP-DDGS; Nutrients; Poultry.


Expenses with food stand out as the factor with the greatest impact of poultry production costs, and in times of increase in the price of commercialization of the main inputs such as corn and soybean meal, it is common to search for alternative foods that can provide lower production costs and provide an adequate supply of nutrients. Among the alternative foods, the co-products of ethanol production obtained from cereals grains, which are promising substitutes in poultry diets, due to high content of crude protein, aminoacids, energy and mineral levels. Differences in the nutritional composition of the grains, and the processing methods for obtaining ethanol and drying may lead to variations in the nutritional composition, and consequently, in the availability of nutrients in the co-products. In this way, several studies have been carried out to determine the nutritional values present in the various co-products used in animal feed, aiming at formulations of increasingly accurate feeds. The high variability, concentration and quality of nutrients between the different sources of co-products, cause great divergences in relation to the levels of inclusion of these co-products recommended by nutritionists for poultry diets. The objective of this literature review is to highlight the nutritional composition and the use of corn ethanol co-products in poultry feed, as an economically viable alternative food for poultry production.


Abudabos, A. M., Al-Atiyat, R. M., Stanley, D., Aljassim, R., & Albastshan, H. A. 2017. The effect of corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fortified with enzyme on growth performance of broiler. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 24, 21412-21421. 10.1007/s11356-017-9808-5

Adeola, O., Jendza, J. A., Southern, L. L., Powell, S., & Owusu-Asiedu, A. 2010. Contribution of exogenous dietary carbohydrase to the metabolizable energy value of corn distillers grains for broiler chickens. Poultry Science. 89(9), 1947-1954. 10.3382/ps.2010-00706

Alves, J. O., Zhuo, C., Levendis, Y. A., & Tenório, J. A. S. 2012. Síntese de nanomateriais de carbono a partir do resíduo de milho (DDGS). Química Nova. 35(8), 1534-1537. 10.1590/S0100-40422012000800008

Associação Brasileira das Indústrias do Milho (2019). Oferta e demanda do milho – Brasil: ABIMILHO.

Associação Brasileira dos Produtores de Soja (2019). Acompanhamento da safra de soja: boletim nº 12/2019: APROSOJA.

Barekatain, M. R., Noblet, J., Wu, S. B., Iji, P. A., Choct, M., & Swick, R. A. 2014. Effect of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles and microbial enzymes on metabolizable and net energy values of broiler diets. Poultry Science. 93(11), 2793-2801. 10.3382/ps.2013-03766

Batal, A. B., & Dale, N. M. 2006. True metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility of distillers dried grains with solubles. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 15: 89-93. 10.1093/japr/15.1.89

Batal, A. B., & Parsons, C. M. (2002). Effect of age on development of digestive organs and performance of chicks fed a corn-soybean meal versus crystalline amino acid diet. Poultry Science. 81, 1338-1341. 10.1093/ps/81.9.1338

Borah, T. K., Kalita, N., Begum, K., sharma, P., & Saikia, A. K. 2019. Effects of feeding different levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on performance of broiler chicken. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 7(6), 1230-1235.

Bottger, C., & Sudeum, K. H. 2017. Within plant variation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced from multiple raw materials in varying proportions: chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of feeding value for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 229: 79-90. 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.003

Bregendahl, K. (2008). Use of distillers co-products in diets fed to poultry. In Babcock, B.A.; Hayes, D.J.; Lawrence, J.D. (Eds.) Using distillers grains in the U.S. and international livestock and poultry industries (pp. 99-133). Ames: Iowa State University Digital Repository.

Cinelli, B. A., Castilho, L. R., Freire, D. M., & Castro, A. M. 2015. A brief review on the emerging technology of ethanol production by cold hydrolysis of raw starch. Fuel. 150, 721-729. 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.02.063

Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento (2019). Acompanhamento da safra brasileira – Cana-de-açúcar. Brasília: CONAB.

Cooper, G., & Weber, J. A. 2012. An outlook on word biofuel production and its implications for the animal feed industry. In: Makkar, H. P. S. Biofuel of co-products as livestock feed: opportunities and challenges. Rome: FAO.

Cozannet, P., Lessire, M., Gady, C., Métayer, J. P., Primo, Y., Skiba, F., & Noblet, J. 2010. Energy value of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles in roosters, broilers, layers, and turkeys. Poultry Science. 89, 2230-2241. 10.3382/ps.2010-0083

Damasceno, J. L., Rocha, C. S., Eyng, C., Broch, J., Souza, C., Wachholz, L., Cirilo, E. H., Avila, A. S., Pires Filho, I. C., & Nunes, R. V. (2020). Corn distillers’ dried gains with solubles to feed broiler chickens from 22 to 42 d of age. Journal off Applied Poultry Research. 29, 273-583. 10.1016/j.livsci.2020.104232

Eckert, C. T., Frigo, E. P., Albrecht, L. P., Albrecht, A. J. P., Christ, D., Santos, W. G., Berkembrock, E., & Efewarth, V. A. (2018). Maize ethanol production in Brazil: characteristics and perspectives. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 82, 3907-3912. 10.1016/j.rser.2017.10.082

El-Hack, M. E. A., Alagawany, M., Farag, M. R., & Dhama, K. 2015. Use of maize distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets: trends and advances. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 10(11), 690-707. 10.3923/ajava.2015.690.707

Fastinger, N. D., Latshaw, J. D., & Maham, D. C. 2006. Amino acid availability and true metabolizable energy content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in adult cecectomized roosters. Poultry Science. 85, 1212-1216. 10.1093/ps/85.7.1212

Foltyn, M., Rada, V., Lichovnikova, M., & Dracková, E. (2013). Effect of corn DDGS on broilers performance and meat quality. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silvicuturae Mendelianae Brunensis. 61, 59-64. 10.11118/actaun201361010059

Fontaine, J., Zimmer, U., Moughan, P. J., & Rutherfurd, S. M. 2007. Effect of heat damage in an autoclave on the reactive lysine contents of soy products and corn distillers dried grains with solubles: use of the results to checks on lysine damage in common qualities of these ingredients. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55, 10737-10743.


Fries-Craft, K., & Bobeck, E. A. 2019. Evaluation of a high-protein DDGS product in broiler chickens: performance, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility. British Poultry Science. 60(6), 749-756. 10.1080/00071668.2019.1652884

Gouveia, A. B. V. S., Paulo, L. M., Silva, J. M. S., Sousa, F. E., Almeida Junior, E. M., Costa, & Minafra, C. S. (2020). Alimentos alternativos utilizados para codornas de corte: revisão. Research, Society and Development. 9(2), e172922250. 10.33448/rsd-v9i2.2250

Hoffman, L., & Baker, A. Market issues and prospects for U.S. distillers’ grains: supply, use, and price relationships: USDA, 2010.

Hussain, M., Mirza, M. A., Nawaz, H., Asghar, M., & Ahmed, G. (2019). Effect of exogenous protease, mannase, and xylanase supplementation in corn and high protein corn DDGS based diets on growth performance, intestinal morphology and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science. 21(4), 001-010. 10.1590/1806-9061-2019-1088

Jacela, J. Y., Frobose, H. L., DeRouchey, J. M., Tokach, M. D., Dritz, S. S., Goodband, R. D., & Nelssen, J. L. 2010. Amino acid digestibility and energy concentration of high-protein corn dried distillers grains and high-protein sorghum dried distillers grains with solubles for swine. Journal of Animal Science. 88, 3617-3623. 10.2527/jas.2010-3098

Jung, B., & Batal, A. B. (2010). Evaluation of high protein distillers’ dried grains as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 90(4), 505-512. doi:10.4141/cjas10030

Kelsall, D. R., & Lyons, T. P. (1999) Grain dry milling and cooking for alcohol production: designing for 23 percent ethanol and maximum yield. In: The alcohol textbook. (3rd Ed.) Jacques, K. A., Lyons, T. P., & Kelsall, D. R. Nottingham, UK.: Notthingham University Press.

Kim, E. J., Martinez-Amezcua, C., Utterback, P. L., & Parsons, C. M. 2008. Phosphorus bioavailability, true metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibilities of high protein corn distillers dried grains and dehydrated corn germ. Poultry Science. 87, 700-705. 10.3382/ps.2007-003

Kim, S., & Dale, B. E. 2009. Regional variations in greenhouse gas emissions of biobased products in the United States corn based ethanol and soybean oil. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. 14, 540-546. 10.1007/s11367-009-0106-4

Klasing, K. C., & Austic, R. E. 2003. Nutritional disease. In: SAIF, Y. M. Diseases of poultry. (pp. 1027-1053). (11a Ed.): Iowa State Press.

Kleinschmit, D. H., Anderson, J. L., Schingoethe, D. J., Kalscheur, K. F., & Hippen, A. R. (2007). Ruminal and intestinal degradability of distillers grains plus solubles varies by source. Journal of Dairy Science. 90, 2909-2918. 10.3168/jds.2006-613

Leeson, S., & Summers, J. D. (2005). Commercial poultry nutrition. (3rd ed.) Guelph, ON: Nottingham University Books.

Liu, K. (2011). Chemical composition of distillers grain, a review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59, 1508-1526. 10.1021/jf103512z

Loy, D. D., & Lundy, E. L. (2019). Nutritional properties and feeding value of corn and its coproducts. In: SERNA-SALDIVAR, S. O. Corn: chemistry and thechnology (pp. 633-659). (3rd Ed.) St. Paul: AACC.

Lumpkins, B. S., Batal, A., & Dale, N. (2005). Use of distillers dried grains plus solubles in laying hen diets. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 14, 25-31. 10.1093/japr/14.1.25

Martinez-Amezcua, C., Parsons, C. M., Singh, V., Srinivasan, R., & Murthy, G. S. 2007. Nutritional characteristics of corn distillers dried grains with solubles as affected by the amounts of grain versus solubles and different processing techniques. Poultry Science. 86, 2624-2630. 10.3382/ps.2007-00137

Mauron, J. 1990. Influence of processing on protein quality. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology. 36, S57-S69. 10.3177/jnsv.36.4-Supplementi_s57

Mim, Y. N., Li, L. L., Liu, S. K., Zhang, J., Gao, Y. P., & Liu, F. Z. (2015). Effects of dietary distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, oxidative stress and immune function in broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 24, 23-29. 10.3382/japr/pfv002

Min, Y. N., Li, L., Waldroup, P. W., Niu, Z. Y., Wang, Z. P., Gao, Y. P., & Liu, F. Z. (2012). Effects of dietary distillers dried grains with solubles concentrations on meat quality and antioxidant status and capacity of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 21, 603-611. 10.3382/japr.2011-00503

Monceaux, D. A., & Kuehner, D. (2009). Dryhouse technologies and DDGS production. In: Ingledew, W.M.; Kelsall, D.R.; Austin, G.E. The alcohol textbook (pp. 303-322). (5th ed.): Nottingham University Press.

Noblet, J., Cozannet, P., & Skiba, F. 2012. Nutritional value and utilization of wheat dried distillers grain with solubles in pigs and poultry. In: Makkar, H. P. S. Biofule of co-products as livestock feed: opportunities and challenges: FAO.

Oliveira, R. L., Leão, A. G., Abreu, L. L., Teixeira, S., & Silva, T. M. 2013. Alimentos alternativos na dieta de ruminantes. Revista Científica de Produção Animal. 15(2), 141-160. 10.15528/2176-4158/rcpa.v15n2p141-160

Oryschak, M., Korver, D., Zuidhof, M., & Beltranena, E. (2010). Nutritive value of single-screw extruded and nonextruded triticale distillers dried grains with solubles, with and without an enzyme complex, for broilers. Poultry Science. 89(7), 1411-1423. 10.3382/ps.2009-00619

Osho, S. O., Babatunde, O. O., & Adeola, O. (2019). Additivity of apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in wheat, canola meal, and sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles in mixed diets fed to broiler chickens. Poultry Science. 98, 1333-1340. 10.3382/ps/pey457

Pedersen, M. B., Dalsgaard, S., Knudsen, K. E. B., & Laerke, H. N. 2014. Compositional profile and variation of distillers dried grains with solubles from various origins with focus on non-starch polysaccharides. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 197, 130-141. 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.07.011

Pereira, A. S., Shitsuka, D. M., Parreira, F. J., & Shitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologia da pesquisa científica. [e-book]. Santa Maria. Ed. UAB/NTE/UFSM.

Perez-Vendrell, A. M., Hernandez, J. M., Llaurado, L., Schierle, J., & Brufau, J. (2001). Influence of source and ratio of xanthophyll pigments on broiler chicken pigmentation and performance. Poultry Science. 80, 320-326. 10.1093/ps/80.3.320

Rausch, K. D., & Eckhoff, S. R. 2016. Maize: wet milling. Encyclopedia of Food Grains. 3, 467-481. 10.1016/B978-0-12-394437-5.00239-4

Rausch, K. D., Hummel, D., Johnson, L. A., & May, J. B. 2019. Wet milling: the basics for corn biorefineries. In: Serna-Saldivar, S. O. Corn: chemistry and thechnology (pp. 501-535). (3rd. Ed.): AACC.

Renewable Fuels Association (2020). Focus forward: 2020 ethanol industry outlook. Ellisville: RFA.

Roper, J. M., Smith, B. L., Rae, J. M. C., Huang, E., Walker, C. A., McNaughton, J. L., Chen, A., & Reidinger, K. S. 2019. Nutrient composition and safety evaluation of simulated isobutanol distillers dried grains with solubles and associated fermentation metabolites when fed to male Ross 708 broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus). PLOS One. 14(7), 1-25. 10.1371/journal.pone.0219016

Rostagno, H. S., Albino, L. F. T., Hannas, M. I., Donzele, J. L., Sakomura, N. K., Perazzo, F. G., & Brito, C. O. 2017. Tabelas brasileiras para aves e suínos: composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais: UFV.

Salim, H. M., Kruk, Z. A., & Lee, B. D. (2010). Nutritive value of corn distillers dried grains with soluble as an ingredient of poultry diets: a review. World´s Poultry Science Journal. 66, 411-432. 10.1017/S0043933910000504

Schöne, R. A., Nunes, R. V., Frank, R., Eyng, C., Castilha, L. D., Schöne, R. A., & Castilha, L. D. 2017. Resíduo seco de destilaria com solúveis (DDGS) na alimentação de frangos de corte (22-42 dias). Revista Ciência Agronômica, 48(3), 548-557. 10.5935/1806-6690.20170064

Shim, M. Y., Pesti, G. M., Bakalli, R. I., Tillman, P. B., & Payne, R. L. (2011). Evaluation of DDGS as an Alternative Ingredient for Broiler Chickens. Poultry Science. 90, 369-376. 10.3382/ps.2010-00727

Shurson, J., & Alghamdi, A. S. (2008). Quality and new technologies to create corn co-products from ethanol production. In: Babcock, B., Hayes, D. J., Lawrence, J. D. Using distillers grains in the U.S. and international livestock and poultry industries (pp. 231-259). MATRIC: Iowa State University.

Spiehs, M. J., Whitney, M. H., & Shurson, G. C. (2002). Nutrient database for distiller’s dried grains with solubles produced from new ethanol plants in Minnesota and South Dakota. Journal of Animal Science. 80, 2639-2645. 10.2527/2002.80102639x.

Srinivasan, R., To, F., & Columbus, E. (2009). Pilot scale fiber separation from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using sieving and air classification. Bioresource Technology. 100, 3548-3555. 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.02.049

Stein, H. H. (2008). Use of distillers co-products in diets fed to swine. In: Babcock, B.A.; Hayes, D.J. & Lawrence, J. D. Using distillers grains in the U.S. and international livestock and poultry industries (pp. 79-97): Iowa State University Digital Repository.

Stein, H. H., Gibson, M. L., Pedersen, C., & Boersma, M. G. (2006). Amino acid and energy digestibility in ten samples of distillers dried grain with solubles fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 84, 853-860. 10.2527/2006.844853x

Stein, H. H., & Shurson, G. C. 2009. Board-invited review: the use and application of distillers dried grains with solubles in swine diets. Journal of Animal Science. 87(4), 1292-1303. 10.2527/jas.2008-1290

Vosgerau, D. S. R., & Romanowski, J. P. (2014) Estudos de revisão: implicações conceituais e metodológicas. Revista Diálogo Educacional. 14(41), 165-189. 10.7213/dialogo.educ.14.041.DS08

Wang, Z., Cerrate, S., Coto, C., Yan, F., & Waldroup, P. W. (2007). Use of constant or increasing levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in broiler diets. International Journal of Poultry Science. 6(7), 501-507. 10.3923/ijps.2007.501.507

Wyman, C. E. (1996). Handbook on bioethanol: production and utilization: Taylor & Francis, 1996.



How to Cite

SILVA, B. C. R. .; TON, A. P. S.; MORENO, F. L. V. .; FREITAS, L. W. de. Use of corn ethanol co-product in poultry feed: Review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 4, p. e15510413891, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i4.13891. Disponível em: Acesso em: 30 may. 2024.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences