Natural photoprotectors: A literature review

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i5.14603

Keywords:

Ultraviolet radiation; Skin aging; Sun protection.

Abstract

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has contributed to the onset of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Consequently, there are a series of incentives for research and development of innovative photoprotectors that can provide protection against such health problems. With the growing consumer interest in cosmetic products of natural origin, there has been an increase in new proposals such as the replacement of synthetic assets with molecules extracted from medicinal plants that present activity compatible or superior to synthetic products and with lesser environmental impact. Natural photoprotectors are gaining attention within this scenario, and some previous studies have demonstrated their potential for use. A literature review was conducted on the main groups and active principles of plants with photoprotective activity and for this purpose we used national and international scientific articles from the Medline/PubMed, SCIELO, LILACs, Science Direct, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. We mentioned 17 different species of medicinal plants with photoprotective action and their respective active ingredients. The flavonoid group was the most cited and studied in relation to the protective capacity against ultraviolet radiation and its isolated action and synergistic action was highlighted. Studies show that plant extracts from different plant species have a photoprotective action, among which they highlight the rich in antioxidant compounds, such as plants of the species Ginkgo biloba, Psidium guajava, Camellia sinensis and Lippia sp. which stand out for their large amount of polyphenols, especially flavonoids.

References

Araújo, T. S., & Souza, S. O. de (2008). Protetores solares e os efeitos da radiação ultravioleta. Revista Scientia Plena 4(1):1–7.

Balogh, T. S, Velasco, M. V. R, Pedriali. C. A., Kaneko, T. A., & Baby, A. R. (2011). Proteção à radiação ultravioleta: recursos disponíveis na atualidade em fotoproteção. Brazilian Annals of Dermatology 86(4):732–742.

Barnes, P. W., Williamson, C. E., Lucas, R. M., Robinson, S. A. & Madronich, S. (2019). Ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation, climate change and prospects for a sustainable future. Nature Sustainability 2:569–579.

Bhagwat, S., Hayytowitz, D. B & Holden, J. M (2011). USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods. U.S. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Center, Release 3, pp. 10–12.

Birt, D. F., Mitchell, D., Gold, B., Pour, P. & Pinch, H. C. (1997). Inhibition of ultraviolet light induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice by apigenin, a plant flavonoid. Anticancer Research 17(1A): 85–92.

Bobin, M. F., Raymond, M., & Martini, M. C. (1995). Propriedades de absorção UVA/UVB de produtos naturais. Cosmet Toil (edição em português) 7: 44–50.

Bordignon, J. R., & Celso, L. et al (2009). Influência do pH da solução extrativa no teor de antocianinas em frutos de morango. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos. Campinas 29(1):183–188.

Bosch, R., Philips, N., Suárez-Pérez, J. A., Juarranz, A., Devmurari, A., Chalensouk-Khaosaat, J., & González, S. (2015). Mechanisms of Photoaging and Cutaneous Photocarcinogenesis, and Photoprotective Strategies with Phytochemicals. Antioxidants 4(2):248–268. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4020248

Busbee, P. B., Busbee, M., Rouse, M., Nagarkatti, M & Nagarkatti, P. S. (2013). Use of natural AhR ligands as potential therapeutic modalities against inflammatory disorders. Nutrition Reviews 71(6):353–369.

Camouse, M. M., Domingo, D. S., Swain, F. R., Conrad, E. P., Matsui, M. S., Maes, D., Declercq, L., Cooper, K. D., Stevens, S. R., & Baron, E. D. (2009). Topical application of green and white tea extracts provides protection from solar simulated ultraviolet light in human skin. Experimental Dermatology 18(6):522– 526.

Chiari-Andréo, B. G., Almeida, F. B., Yamasaki, P. R., Santos, J. L., Corrêa, M. A, Chin Chung, M. et al (2020). Can natural products improve skin photoprotection? Rodriguésia 71:e00672019.

Choquenet, B., Couteau, C., Paparis, E. & Coiffard, I. J. (2008). Quercetin and rutin as potential sunscreen agents: Determination of efficacy by an in vitro method. Journal of Natural Products 71(6):1117–1118.

De Paola, M. V. R. V. & Ribeiro, M. E. (1998). Interação entre filtros solares. Cosmetics & Toiletries. 10:40–50.

Diffey, B. L., & Robson, J. (1989). A new substrate to measure sunscreen protection factors throughout the ultraviolet spectrum. Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists 40:127–133.

Epstein, J. H. Biological effect of sunlight. In: Lowe, N. J., Shaath, M. & Pathak, M. A. Sunscreens: development, evaluation and regulatory aspect. Marcel Dekker, New York. 1990

Ferrari, M., Oliveira, M. S. C., Nakano, A. K., & Rocha-Filho, P. A. (2008). Determinação do fator de proteção solar (FPS) in vitro e in vivo de emulsões com óleo de andiroba (Carapa guianensis). Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 17:626–630.

Filho, J. M. T. A, Sampaio, P. A., Pereira, E. C. V., de Oliveria Júnior, R. G., Silva, F. S., Almeida, J. R. G. S., Rolim, L. A, Nunes, X. P., & Araújo, E. C. C. (2016). Flavonoids as photoprotective agents: A systematic review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 10(47):848–864.

Flor, J., Davolos, M. R., & Correa, M. A. (2007). Protetores solares. Química Nova 30(1):153–158.

Giampieri, F., Alvarez-Suarez, J., Tulipani, S., Gonzàles-Paramàs, A. M., Santos-Buelga, C., Bompadre, S., Quiles, J., Mezzetti, B. & Battino, M. (2012). Photoprotective potential of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) extract against UVA irradiation damage on human fibroblasts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60(9): 2322−2327.

Gould, K. S. (2004). Nature's Swiss Army Knife: The diverse protective roles of anthocyanins in leaves. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2004(5): 314–320.

Guaratini, T., Medeiros, M. H. G; & Colepicolo, P. Antioxidante na manutenção do equilíbrio redox cutâneo: uso e avaliação de sua eficácia. Química Nova 30(1):206-213.

Guaratini, T., Callejon, D. R., Pires, D. C., Lopes, J. N. C., Lima, L. M., Giannella, N. D., Sustovich, C. & Lopes, N. P. (2009). Fotoprotetores derivados de produtos naturais: perspectivas de mercado e interações entre o setor produtivo e centros de pesquisa. Química Nova 32(3):717–721.

Inal, M. E., Kahramant, A. & Kkent, T. (2001). Beneficial effects of quercetin on oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet A. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 26(6): 536–539.

Jallad, K. N. (2016). Chemical characterization of sunscreens composition and its related potential adverse health effects. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology 16(3):353–357. doi:10.1111/jocd.12282

Jiang, N., Doseff, A. & Grotewold, E. (2016). Flavones: From Biosynthesis to Health Benefits. Plants 5(2):27. 10.3390/plants5020027

Johncock, W. (2000). Interação de formulações com filtro solar. Cosmetics. & Toiletries. 12:40-50.

Juzeniene, A. & Moan, J. (2012). Beneficial effects of UV radiation other than via vitamin D production. Dermato endocrinology 4:109–117. 10.4161/derm.20013.

Korkina, L., Kostyuk, V., Potapovich, A., Mayer, W. & Talib, N., De Luca, C. (2018). Secondary Plant Metabolites for Sun Protective Cosmetics: From Pre-Selection to Product Formulation. Cosmetics 5(2):32.

Lambert, J. D., Sang, S. & Yang, C. S (2007). Possible controversy over dietary polyphenols: benefits vs risks. Chemical Research in Toxicology 20(4):583–585.

Lin, J. Y., Tournas, J. A., Burch, J. A., Monteiro-Riviere, N. A. & Zielinski, J. (2008). Topical isoflavones provide effective photoprotection to skin. Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine 24(2):61–66.

Lívia, P. G. M., Nathália, O. S. G., Mariana, C. M., Andressa, L. S. D., Nayara, L. O. & Edemilson, C. C. (2018). Extract from byproduct Psidium guajava standardized in ellagic acid: additivation of the in vitro photoprotective efficacy of a cosmetic formulation. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 28(6):692–696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2018.08.005

Mota, M. D., Morte, A. N., Silva, L. C & Chinalia, F. (2020). Sunscreen protection factor enhancement through supplementation with Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L) ethanolic extract. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 205:111837.

Moyal, D. D & Fourtanier, A. M. (2008). Broad-spectrum sunscreens provide better protection from solar ultraviolet-stimulated radiation and natural sunlight-induced immunosuppression in human beings. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 58(5):S149–S154.

Pereira, A. S. Shitsuka, D. M, Parreira, F. J. & Shitsuka, R. (2008). Metodologia da pesquisa científica. UFSM. https://repositório.ufsm.br/bitstrea m/handle /1/1 5824/Lic_computacao_metodologia da pesquisa- Cientifica.pdf?sequence=1.

Perugini, P., Simeoni, S., Scalia, S., Genta, I., Modena, T., Conti, B. & Pavanetto, F. (2002). Effect of nanoparticle encapsulation on the photostability of the sunscreen agent, 2-ethylhexyl-p- methoxycinnamate. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 246(1-2):37–45.

Polonini, H., Brandao, H., Raposo, N., Mouton, L., Yepremian, C., Couté, A. & Brayner, R. (2014). Ecotoxicological studies of micro- and nanosized barium titanate on aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 154C:58–70. 10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.05.005.

Ramos, M. F. S., Santos, E. P & Dellamora-Ortiz, G. M (2010). Avaliação da atividade antissolar e estudos preliminares de fotodegradação da própolis. Revista Fitos, São Paulo 5(3).

Rancan, F., Rosan, S., Boehm, K., Fernandez, E., Hidalgo, M. E., Quihot, W., Rubio, C., Boehm, F., Piazena, H. & Oltmanns, U. (2002). Protection against UVB irradiation by natural filters extracted from lichens. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 68(2-3):133–139.

Ribeiro, C. (2006). Cosmetologia aplicada a dermoestética. Pharmabooks.

Saewan, N. & Jimtaisong, A. (2013). Photoprotection of natural flavonoids. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 3(9):129–141.

Saewan, N. & Jimtaisong, A. (2015). Natural products as photoprotection. Journal of cosmetic dermatology 14(1):1–17.

Sampaio, S. A. P. & Rivitti, E. A. Dermatologia. (2a ed.), Artes Médicas, 629–42, 839–846, 878–886.

Seok, S. U., Kang, S. Y., Seo, J. W., Kim, S. H., Hwang, K. M. & Park, E. S. (2016). Formulation of Nanoparticle Containing Everolimus Using Microfluidization and Freeze-Drying. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 64(10):1445–1449. 10.1248/cpb.c16-00049.

Silva, E. E. S., Alencar-Filho, J. M. T., Oliveira, A. P., Guimaraes, A. L., Siqueira-Filho, J. A., Almeida, J. R. G. S. & Araujo, E. C. C. (2014). Identification of glycosil flavones and determination in vitro of antioxidant and photoprotective activities of Alternanthera brasiliana L. Kuntze. Research Journal of Phytochemistry 8(4):148–154. 10.3923/rjphyto.2014.148.154.

Simis, T. & Simis, D. (2006). Doenças da pele relacionadas à radiação sola. Revista Faculdade de Ciências Médicas de Sorocaba 8(1):234–242.

Singh, G. & Kumar, J. Artificial and natural photoprotective compounds. In book: Sunscreens: Source, Formulations, Efficacy and Recommendations. NOVA Science Publishers Inc., USA, 2018: 153–200

Skarupova, D., Vostalova, J. & Rajnochova Svobodova, A. (2020). Ultraviolet A protective potential of plant extracts and phytochemicals. Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 164(1):1–22.

Survay, N. S., Upadhyaya, C. P., Kumar, B., Young, K. E., Yoon, D. Y. & Park, S. W. (2011). New genera of flavonols and flavonol derivatives as therapeutic molecules. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 54:1–18.

Tapas, A. R., Sakarkar, D. M. & Kakde, R. B (2008). Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals: A Review. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 7(3):1089–1099.

Toffetti, M. H. F. C. & De Oliveira, V. R. (2006). A importância do uso do filtro solar na prevenção do fotoenvelhecimento e do câncer de pele. Investigação 6(1).

Toyoshima, M., Hosoda, K., Hanamura, M., Okamoto, K., Kobayashi, H. & Negishi, T. (2004). Alternative methods to evaluate the protective ability of sunscreen against photogenotoxicity. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 73(1-2):59–66.

Tsao, R., Yang, R., Young, J. C. & Zhu, H. (2003). Polyphenolic profiles in eight apple cultivars using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51(21):6347–6353.

Van Dross, R., Hong, X., Essengue, S., Fischer, S. M. & Pelling, J. C. (2007). Modulation of UVB-induced and basal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression by apigenin in mouse keratinocytes: role of USF transcription factors. Molecular Carcinogenesis 46(4):303–314.

Violante, I. M. P., Souza, I. M., Venturini, C. L., Ramalho, A. F. S., Santos, R. A. N. & Ferrari, M. (2009). Avaliação in vitro da atividade fotoprotetora de extratos vegetais do cerrado de Mato Grosso. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 19(2):452–457.

Wolf, R., Wolf, D., Morganti, P. & Ruocco, V. (2001). Sunscreens. Clinics in Dermatology. 19(4):452–459.

Wei, H., Zhang, X., Wang, Y. & Lebwohl, M. (2002). Inhibition of ultraviolet light-induced oxidative events in the skin and internal organs of hairless mice by isoflavone genistein. Cancer Letters 185(1):21–29.

Widyarini, S., Husband, A. J. & Reeve, V. E. (2005). Protective effect of the isoflavonoid equol against hairless mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by UV radiation alone or with a chemical cocarcinogen. Photochemistry and Photobiology 81(1):32–37.

Yoshida, K., Kitahara, S., Ito, D. & Kondo, T. (2006). Ferric ions involved in the flower color development of the Himalayan blue poppy, Meconopsis grandis. Phytochemistry 67(10):992–998.

Downloads

Published

25/04/2021

How to Cite

ARRUDA, R. L. .; GARCIA, N. O. de S. .; SOUZA, N. F. .; SILVA, F. M. da .; ARRUDA, E. L. .; CONCEIÇÃO, E. C. da . Natural photoprotectors: A literature review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 5, p. e0810514603, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i5.14603. Disponível em: https://www.rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/14603. Acesso em: 3 feb. 2023.

Issue

Section

Review Article