Psychological effects of the pandemic on caregivers of older adults: A rapid systematic review

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i8.17125

Keywords:

Caregivers; Coronavirus infections; Pandemic; Psychological distress; Older adult.

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has rendered numerous impacts on society, especially to caregivers of older adults, who are facing many tasks. These elevated number of demands and modifications can affect these caregivers’ mental health. This study aimed to gather empirical evidence on existing researches about the impact of caregiver’s mental health of older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This rapid systematic review, developed from international and Brazilian databases from January/2020 to April/2021, identified 4714 potentially relevant articles, published in English and Portuguese. Eighteen (18) articles that potentially met the inclusion criteria were screened and read. Eleven of them met the inclusion criteria and were selected for this review. Caregivers of older adults demonstrate different psychological manifestations such as higher levels of stress, anxiety, sleep problems, depression, somatic symptoms, and poor quality of life. Those can directly influence the care provided to the older adults. Knowing the effects on the caregivers can be conducted psychological interventions to prevent and minimize impacts in their lives.

References

Albott, C. S., Wozniak, J. R., McGlinch, B. P., Wall, M. H., Gold, B. S., & Vinogradov, S. (2020). Battle Buddies: Rapid deployment of a psychological resilience intervention for health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Anesthesia Research Society, 131(1), 43-54. https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004912

Altieri, M., & Santangelo, G. (2021). The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on caregivers of people with dementia. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 29(1), 27-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2020.10.009

APA (American Psychological Association). (2020). Pandemics. https://www.apa.org/practice/programs/dmhi/research-information/pandemics

Archer, J., Reiboldt, W., Claver, M., & Fay, J. (2021). Caregiving in quarantine: Evaluating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adult child informal caregivers of a parent. Journal Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine, 7, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333721421990150

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenbrg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: a rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912-920. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Emergency Consideration for PPE. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/non-us-settings/emergencyconsiderations-ppe.html

Cohen, G., Russo, M. J., Campos, J. A., & Allegri, R. F. (2020). Living with dementia: Increased level of caregiver stress in times of COVID-19. International Psychogeriatrics, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610220001593

Dhavale, P., Koparkar, A., & Fernandes, P. (2020). Palliative care interventions from a social work perspective and the challenges faced by patients and caregivers during COVID-19. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 26, S58-62. https://doi.org/10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_149_20

Fagerström, C., Elmstãhl, S., & Wranker, S. (2020). Analyzing the situation of older family caregivers with a focus on health-related quality of life and pain: A cross-sectional cohort study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 18(79), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01321-3

Family Caregiver Alliance National Center on Caregiving. Definitions (2014). CareNav. https://www.caregiver.org/pilotIntegratio n/indexPersistent.html?uri=/definitions-0.

Flesch, L. D., Batistoni, S. S. T., Neri, A. L., & Cachioni, M. (2020). Elderly who care for elderly: Double vulnerability and quality of life. Paidéia, 30, e3003. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-4327e3003

Gallagher, S., & Wetherell, M. A. (2020). Risk of depression in family caregivers: Unintended consequences of COVID-19. BJPsych Open, 6, e119, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.99

Gérin, P., & Zech, E. (2019). Informal caregiver burnout? Development of a theoretical framework to understand the impact of caregiving. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1748-1760. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01748

Guilcher, S. J. T., Maunula, L., Cadel, L., Everall, A. C., Li, J., & Kuluski, K. (2021). Caregiving for older adults with hip fractures: Exploring the perspectives of caregivers, providers, and decision-makers in Ontario, Canada. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 93, 104321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2020.104321

Gulia, A., Mishra, S., & Bhatnagar, S. (2020). Multiple caregiving rose with the novel challenge of COVID-19 pandemic: A crisis situation. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 26, S163-165. https://doi.org/10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_165_20

Hall, R. C. W., Hall, R., & Chapman, M. J. (2008). The 1995 Kikwit Ebola outbreak: Lessons hospitals and physicians can apply to future viral epidemics. General Hospital Psychiatry, 30(5), 446-452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. genhosppsych.2008.05.003

Hwang, E. J., Kim, H., Yoon, S. H., Goo, J. M., & Park, C. M. (2020). Implementation of a deep learning-based computer-aided detection system for the interpretation of chest radiographs in patients suspected for COVID-19. Korean journal of radiology, 21(10), 1150–1160. https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.0536

Killen, A., Olsen, K., McKeith, I. G., Thomas, A. J., O’Brien, J. T., Donaghy, P., & Taylor J. (2020). The challenges of COVID-19 for people with dementia with Lewy bodies and family caregivers. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.5393

Lai, F. H., Yan, E. W., Yu, K. K., Tsui, W., Chan, D. T., & Yee, B., K. (2020). The protective impact of telemedicine on person with dementia and their caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(11), 1175-1184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2020.07.019

Li, Q., Zhang, H., Zhang, M., Li, T., Ma, W., An, C., & Wang, H. (2021). Mental health multimorbidity among caregivers of older adults during the COVID-19 epidemic. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, S1064-S7481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2021.01.006

Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gotzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P. A., & Moher, D. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and emta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000100. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100

Migliaccio, R., & Bouzigues, A. (2020). Dementia and COVID-19 lockdown: More than a double blow for patients and caregivers. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Reports, 4, 231-235. https://doi.org/10.3233/ADR-200193

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097

Moraes, R.F. (2020). Prevenindo conflitos sociais violentos em tempos de pandemia: garantia da renda, manutenção da saúde mental e comunicação efetiva (Nota Técnica 27). Ipea: Diretoria de Estudos e Políticas do Estado, das Instituições e da Democracia. http://repositorio.ipea.gov.br/handle/11058/9836

NASEM (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine). (2020). Rapid expert consultation on SARS-CoV-2 laboratory testing for the COVID-19 pandemic. The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25775.

O’Connor, M., Moriarty, H., Schneider, A., Dowdell, E. B., & Bowles, K. H. (2021). Patients’ and caregivers’ perspectives in determining discharge readiness from home health. Geriatric Nursing, 42, 151-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2020.12.012

Ong, H. L., Vaingankar, J. A., Abdin, E., Sambasivam, R., Fauziana, R., Tan, M., Chong, S. A., Goveas, R. R., Chiang, P., & Subramaniam, M. (2018). Resilience and burden in caregivers of older adults: moderating and mediating effects of perceived social support. BMC Psychiatry, 18(27), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1616-z

Ornell, F., Schuch, J. B., Sordi, A. O., & Kessler, F. H. P. (2020). “Pandemic fear” and COVID-19: mental health burden and strategies. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-0008

Park, S. S. (2020). Caregivers’ mental health and somatic symptoms during COVID-19. Journals of Gerontology Social Sciences, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbaa121

Pinquart, M., & Sörensen, S. (2003). Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: a metaanalysis. Psychology and Aging, 18(2), 250–267. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.18.2.250

Rainero, I., Bruni, A., Marra, C., Cagnin, A., Bonanni, L., Cupidi, C., & the SINdem COVID-19 Study Group. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 quarantine on patients with dementia and family caregivers: A nation-wide survey. Frontiers in Aging neuroscience, 12, 625-781. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.625781

Sallim, A. B., Sayampanathan, A. A., Cuttilan, A., & Ho, R. C. (2015). Prevalence of mental health disorders among caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The Journal of Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine, 16(12), 1034-1041. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amda.2015.09.007

Savva, G., Zaccai, J., Matthews, F., Davidson, J., Mckeith, I., & Brayne, C. (2009). Prevalence correlates course of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in the population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(3), 212-219. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.108.049619

Taylor, S., Landry, C. A., Paluszek, M. M., Fergus, T., McKay, D., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (2020). COVID stress syndrome: Concept, structure, and correlates. Anxiety and Depression Association of American, 37, 706-714. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.23071

Todorovic, N., Vracevic, M., Rajovic, N., Pavlovic, V., Madzarevic, P., Cumic, J., & Millic, N. (2020). Quality of life of informal caregivers behind the scene of the COVID-19 epidemic in Serbia. MDPI Jounal Medicina, 56, 647-657. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56120647

Tsapanou, A., Papatriantafyllou, J. D., Yiannopoulou, K., Sali, D., Kalligerou, F., Ntanasi, E., & Sakka, P. (2020). The impacto f COVID-19 pandemic on people with mild cognitive impairment/dementia and on their caregivers. International Journal Geriatric Psychiatry, 36, 583-587. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.5457

Vaitheswaran, S., Lakshminarayanan, M., Ramanujam, V., Sargunan, S., & Venkatesan, S. (2020). Experiences and needs of caregivers of persons with dementia in India during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(11), 1185-1194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2020.06.026

World Health Organization. (2020). Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak. https://www.who.int/publications-detail/mental-health-and-psychosocial-considerations-during-the-covid-19-outbreak

World Health Organization. (2017). Rapid reviews to strengthen health policy and systems: A practical guide. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/alliance-hpsr/resources/publications/rapid-review-guide/en/

Downloads

Published

08/07/2021

How to Cite

DULLIUS, W. R. .; SECCHI, Álisson .; SCORTEGAGNA, S. A. . Psychological effects of the pandemic on caregivers of older adults: A rapid systematic review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 8, p. e13210817125, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i8.17125. Disponível em: https://www.rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/17125. Acesso em: 25 feb. 2024.

Issue

Section

Review Article