Psychological effects of the pandemic on caregivers of older adults: A rapid systematic review
Keywords:Caregivers; Coronavirus infections; Pandemic; Psychological distress; Older adult.
The COVID-19 pandemic has rendered numerous impacts on society, especially to caregivers of older adults, who are facing many tasks. These elevated number of demands and modifications can affect these caregivers’ mental health. This study aimed to gather empirical evidence on existing researches about the impact of caregiver’s mental health of older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This rapid systematic review, developed from international and Brazilian databases from January/2020 to April/2021, identified 4714 potentially relevant articles, published in English and Portuguese. Eighteen (18) articles that potentially met the inclusion criteria were screened and read. Eleven of them met the inclusion criteria and were selected for this review. Caregivers of older adults demonstrate different psychological manifestations such as higher levels of stress, anxiety, sleep problems, depression, somatic symptoms, and poor quality of life. Those can directly influence the care provided to the older adults. Knowing the effects on the caregivers can be conducted psychological interventions to prevent and minimize impacts in their lives.
Albott, C. S., Wozniak, J. R., McGlinch, B. P., Wall, M. H., Gold, B. S., & Vinogradov, S. (2020). Battle Buddies: Rapid deployment of a psychological resilience intervention for health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Anesthesia Research Society, 131(1), 43-54. https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004912
Altieri, M., & Santangelo, G. (2021). The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on caregivers of people with dementia. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 29(1), 27-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2020.10.009
APA (American Psychological Association). (2020). Pandemics. https://www.apa.org/practice/programs/dmhi/research-information/pandemics
Archer, J., Reiboldt, W., Claver, M., & Fay, J. (2021). Caregiving in quarantine: Evaluating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adult child informal caregivers of a parent. Journal Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine, 7, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333721421990150
Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenbrg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: a rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912-920. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Emergency Consideration for PPE. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/non-us-settings/emergencyconsiderations-ppe.html
Cohen, G., Russo, M. J., Campos, J. A., & Allegri, R. F. (2020). Living with dementia: Increased level of caregiver stress in times of COVID-19. International Psychogeriatrics, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610220001593
Dhavale, P., Koparkar, A., & Fernandes, P. (2020). Palliative care interventions from a social work perspective and the challenges faced by patients and caregivers during COVID-19. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 26, S58-62. https://doi.org/10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_149_20
Fagerström, C., Elmstãhl, S., & Wranker, S. (2020). Analyzing the situation of older family caregivers with a focus on health-related quality of life and pain: A cross-sectional cohort study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 18(79), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01321-3
Family Caregiver Alliance National Center on Caregiving. Definitions (2014). CareNav. https://www.caregiver.org/pilotIntegratio n/indexPersistent.html?uri=/definitions-0.
Flesch, L. D., Batistoni, S. S. T., Neri, A. L., & Cachioni, M. (2020). Elderly who care for elderly: Double vulnerability and quality of life. Paidéia, 30, e3003. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-4327e3003
Gallagher, S., & Wetherell, M. A. (2020). Risk of depression in family caregivers: Unintended consequences of COVID-19. BJPsych Open, 6, e119, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.99
Gérin, P., & Zech, E. (2019). Informal caregiver burnout? Development of a theoretical framework to understand the impact of caregiving. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1748-1760. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01748
Guilcher, S. J. T., Maunula, L., Cadel, L., Everall, A. C., Li, J., & Kuluski, K. (2021). Caregiving for older adults with hip fractures: Exploring the perspectives of caregivers, providers, and decision-makers in Ontario, Canada. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 93, 104321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2020.104321
Gulia, A., Mishra, S., & Bhatnagar, S. (2020). Multiple caregiving rose with the novel challenge of COVID-19 pandemic: A crisis situation. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 26, S163-165. https://doi.org/10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_165_20
Hall, R. C. W., Hall, R., & Chapman, M. J. (2008). The 1995 Kikwit Ebola outbreak: Lessons hospitals and physicians can apply to future viral epidemics. General Hospital Psychiatry, 30(5), 446-452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. genhosppsych.2008.05.003
Hwang, E. J., Kim, H., Yoon, S. H., Goo, J. M., & Park, C. M. (2020). Implementation of a deep learning-based computer-aided detection system for the interpretation of chest radiographs in patients suspected for COVID-19. Korean journal of radiology, 21(10), 1150–1160. https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.0536
Killen, A., Olsen, K., McKeith, I. G., Thomas, A. J., O’Brien, J. T., Donaghy, P., & Taylor J. (2020). The challenges of COVID-19 for people with dementia with Lewy bodies and family caregivers. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.5393
Lai, F. H., Yan, E. W., Yu, K. K., Tsui, W., Chan, D. T., & Yee, B., K. (2020). The protective impact of telemedicine on person with dementia and their caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(11), 1175-1184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2020.07.019
Li, Q., Zhang, H., Zhang, M., Li, T., Ma, W., An, C., & Wang, H. (2021). Mental health multimorbidity among caregivers of older adults during the COVID-19 epidemic. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, S1064-S7481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2021.01.006
Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gotzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P. A., & Moher, D. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and emta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000100. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100
Migliaccio, R., & Bouzigues, A. (2020). Dementia and COVID-19 lockdown: More than a double blow for patients and caregivers. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Reports, 4, 231-235. https://doi.org/10.3233/ADR-200193
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097
Moraes, R.F. (2020). Prevenindo conflitos sociais violentos em tempos de pandemia: garantia da renda, manutenção da saúde mental e comunicação efetiva (Nota Técnica 27). Ipea: Diretoria de Estudos e Políticas do Estado, das Instituições e da Democracia. http://repositorio.ipea.gov.br/handle/11058/9836
NASEM (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine). (2020). Rapid expert consultation on SARS-CoV-2 laboratory testing for the COVID-19 pandemic. The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25775.
O’Connor, M., Moriarty, H., Schneider, A., Dowdell, E. B., & Bowles, K. H. (2021). Patients’ and caregivers’ perspectives in determining discharge readiness from home health. Geriatric Nursing, 42, 151-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2020.12.012
Ong, H. L., Vaingankar, J. A., Abdin, E., Sambasivam, R., Fauziana, R., Tan, M., Chong, S. A., Goveas, R. R., Chiang, P., & Subramaniam, M. (2018). Resilience and burden in caregivers of older adults: moderating and mediating effects of perceived social support. BMC Psychiatry, 18(27), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1616-z
Ornell, F., Schuch, J. B., Sordi, A. O., & Kessler, F. H. P. (2020). “Pandemic fear” and COVID-19: mental health burden and strategies. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-0008
Park, S. S. (2020). Caregivers’ mental health and somatic symptoms during COVID-19. Journals of Gerontology Social Sciences, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbaa121
Pinquart, M., & Sörensen, S. (2003). Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: a metaanalysis. Psychology and Aging, 18(2), 250–267. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-79184.108.40.206
Rainero, I., Bruni, A., Marra, C., Cagnin, A., Bonanni, L., Cupidi, C., & the SINdem COVID-19 Study Group. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 quarantine on patients with dementia and family caregivers: A nation-wide survey. Frontiers in Aging neuroscience, 12, 625-781. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.625781
Sallim, A. B., Sayampanathan, A. A., Cuttilan, A., & Ho, R. C. (2015). Prevalence of mental health disorders among caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The Journal of Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine, 16(12), 1034-1041. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amda.2015.09.007
Savva, G., Zaccai, J., Matthews, F., Davidson, J., Mckeith, I., & Brayne, C. (2009). Prevalence correlates course of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in the population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(3), 212-219. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.108.049619
Taylor, S., Landry, C. A., Paluszek, M. M., Fergus, T., McKay, D., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (2020). COVID stress syndrome: Concept, structure, and correlates. Anxiety and Depression Association of American, 37, 706-714. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.23071
Todorovic, N., Vracevic, M., Rajovic, N., Pavlovic, V., Madzarevic, P., Cumic, J., & Millic, N. (2020). Quality of life of informal caregivers behind the scene of the COVID-19 epidemic in Serbia. MDPI Jounal Medicina, 56, 647-657. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56120647
Tsapanou, A., Papatriantafyllou, J. D., Yiannopoulou, K., Sali, D., Kalligerou, F., Ntanasi, E., & Sakka, P. (2020). The impacto f COVID-19 pandemic on people with mild cognitive impairment/dementia and on their caregivers. International Journal Geriatric Psychiatry, 36, 583-587. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.5457
Vaitheswaran, S., Lakshminarayanan, M., Ramanujam, V., Sargunan, S., & Venkatesan, S. (2020). Experiences and needs of caregivers of persons with dementia in India during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(11), 1185-1194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2020.06.026
World Health Organization. (2020). Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak. https://www.who.int/publications-detail/mental-health-and-psychosocial-considerations-during-the-covid-19-outbreak
World Health Organization. (2017). Rapid reviews to strengthen health policy and systems: A practical guide. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/alliance-hpsr/resources/publications/rapid-review-guide/en/
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Willian Roger Dullius; Álisson Secchi; Silvana Alba Scortegagna
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.