Prospects and challenges of the liquefied natural gas market in Brazil

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i2.25527

Keywords:

Liquefied Natural Gas; Natural Gas; Energy Mix; Brazil.

Abstract

The liquefied natural gas can overcome current barriers, mainly for natural gas transportation over long distances, enabling global trade and overcoming intercontinental distances. Following this trend, Brazil is entering this global market for liquefied natural gas. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the prospects and challenges of liquefied natural gas for the Brazilian natural gas market through reports from the government and the national industry. It was possible to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of this natural gas supply option within the national matrix through the SWOT analysis. After this, the gravity, urgency, and tendency (GUT) matrix were applied and adapted to classify just one dimension, as the importance of each point of the SWOT. As a result, substantial material was gathered for analysis demonstrating positive and negative characteristics of liquefied natural gas for Brazil, besides the government's view on the subject, which can be useful mainly for the academic, commercial, and industrial.

Author Biographies

Lauron Arend, University of São Paulo

Electrical engineer, graduated at UFSM (Federal University of Santa Maria - Brazil), post-graduated in Contract Law at INSPER in São Paulo (Brazil), master’s degree at USP in Energy about LNG World Market and Best Practices to Importation to Brazil and fluent in English

 

Sixteen years of experience in power trading of utilities (Power, Natural Gas, Steam, water and fuels) and Project Management, including planning, implementation and maintenance of civil constructions (electric hydro plants, electric power stations, bridges, highways, building), environmental and licensing programs, negotiation and acquisition of land, electric power and natural gas contracts, electric power connection processes and migration to free-market consuming, negotiations with ANEEL and ONS. Work experience and career development in companies such as 2W Energia, Oxiteno, Votorantim, Gerdau, Parker and Braskem dealing with international negotiations in United States and Mexico with the main supplier of each country. Teacher of IPOG in the MBA course of Energy for classes in Florianopolis and Goiania.

Carlos Augusto Arentz Pereira , State University of Rio de Janeiro

Carlos Augusto Arentz Pereira is an Adjunct Professor at Rio de Janeiro State University, responsible for Energy Planning and Renewable Resources discipline at Environmental Engineering course. Carlos has previously worked at Brazilian Oil Co. Petrobras for 33 years, where he has occupied diverse managerial positions and acquired experience on utilities operation, energy efficiency projects, environmental and sustainability, business performance assessment, transfer pricing, logistics and planning for Oil &Gas. He has worked 10 years on refineries, acting as a process engineer in environmental control, energy conservation, projects, performance evaluation and operational support. Concerning natural gas and power business, he has acted on marketing, contract negotiation, logistics of natural gas, pricing policies, short-term (spot) natural gas sales and logistics operator services. He also acts as a business consultant on energy, natural gas, oil refining, distribution marketing of oil & gas, advising over projects, contracts and providing technical support to attorneys on arbitrage and disputes. He holds a BSc in Chemical Engineering, Extension courses in Petroleum Processing Engineering, Computing Science, Industrial Combustion, a MSc on Logistics and a DSc in Economics.

References

ANP. (2018a). Desverticalização na Indústria do Gás Natural. http://www.anp.gov.br/images/central-de-conteudo/notas-estudos-tecnicos/notas-tecnicas/nota-tecnica-04-2018-sim.pdf

ANP. (2018b). Regulamentação da Transparência da Formação de Preços: Mercado de Gás Natural. http://www.anp.gov.br/arquivos/cap/2019/cap18/nt-9_cap18-2019.pdf

ANP. (2019). Anuário Estatístico Brasileiro do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis 2019. www.anp.gov.br

ANP. (2020). Anuário Estatístico Brasileiro do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis 2020. http://www.anp.gov.br/arquivos/central-conteudos/anuario-estatistico/2019/2019-anuario-versao-impressao.pdf

Asche, F., Osmundsen, P., & Tveterås, R. (2001). Market integration for natural gas in Europe. International Journal of Global Energy Issues, 16(4), 300–312. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGEI.2001.000925

Awais, M., & Wang, B. (2019). Analyzing the role of governance in CO 2 emissions mitigation : The BRICS experience. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 51, 119–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strueco.2019.08.007

Bartelet, H., & Mulder, M. (2019). Natural Gas Markets in the European Union: Testing Resilience. https://doi.org/10.5547/2160-5890.8.2.hbar

BNDES. (2017). Panoramas setoriais 2030: desafios e oportunidades para o Brasil.

BNDES. (2020). Mercado de embarcações de apoio a plataformas de produção de petróleo e gás natural. BNDES Setorial 51, 77–124. https://web.bndes.gov.br/bib/jspui/handle/1408/19820

BNDES. (2021). Gás para o Desenvolvimento: Perspectiva de Oferta e Demanda no Mercado de Gás Natural no Brasil. https://web.bndes.gov.br/bib/jspui/bitstream/1408/20581/1/Relatorio_Gas_Desenvolvimento Final.pdf

Carlos, D., & Costa, L. (2021). Interdisciplinarity Applied to the Optimized Dispatch of Integrated Electricity and Natural Gas Networks using the Genetic Algorithm A interdisciplinaridade Aplicada ao Despacho Otimizado das Redes Integradas de Energia Elétrica Interdisciplinariedad Apli. 2021, 1–21. https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/12641/11430

Carlos, D., Costa, L., Cristina, A., Reis, F., Cristina, A., Reis, F., & Raiol, F. M. (2022). Thermoelectric generation with reduced pollutants made possible by bio-inspired computing Geração termelétrica com redução de poluentes viabilizada pela computação bioinspirada Generación termoeléctrica con contaminantes reducidos posible gracias a la inf. 2022, 1–13. https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/24568/21645

Carmelita, R., & Moreno, P. (2021). A Matriz SWOT e suas Subdimensões : Uma Proposta de Inovação Conceitual The SWOT Matrix and its Subdimensions : A Conceptual Innovation Proposal La Matriz SWOT y sus Subdimensiones : Una propuesta de innovación conceptual. 2021, 1–14. https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/12580/11239

Carolina, A., Teixeira, R., Gerber, P., Rocha, R., Luis, T., Brito, F., Moutinho, E., & Mouette, D. (2021). The use of liquefied natural g gas as an alternative fuel in freight transport – Evidence from a driver ’ s point of view. Energy Policy, 149(December 2020), 112106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2020.112106

Chávez-Rodríguez, M. F., Dias, L., Simoes, S., Seixas, J., Hawkes, A., Szklo, A., & Lucena, A. F. P. (2017). Modelling the natural gas dynamics in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Applied Energy, 201, 219–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.05.061

Chrisopoulou, A. (2018). Commercial, Financing and Climate Change challenges facing LNG Export Projects [International Hellenic University]. https://repository.ihu.edu.gr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11544/29074/IHU Dissertation template Anastasia Chrisopoulou 1108150004.pdf?sequence=1

CNI. (2018). Gás Natural: Mercado e Competitividade. https://static.poder360.com.br/2018/06/28-GAS-NATURAL-ELEICOES-2018.pdf

CNI, & ABRACE. (2016). Gás natural liquefeito: Cenários Globais e Oportunidades para a Indústria Brasileira. Confederação Nacional de Indústria, 169. http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/dspace/bitstream/handle/10438/18196/gas_natural_liquefeito_-_cenarios_globais_e_oportunidades.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Coad, A., Grassano, N., Hall, B. H., Moncada-paternò-castello, P., & Vezzani, A. (2019). Innovation and industrial dynamics ଝ. 50, 126–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strueco.2019.06.008

Cornot-ganDolphe, S. (2016). The US natural gas exports (Issue June). https://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9130us2a.htm

Costa, G. F. da, & Alfradique, M. (2020). Estimativa de Custos para a Interiorização do Gás Natural no Brasil via GNC e GNL. 2020 (December), 1–12.

Costa, H. K. de M., Ramos, K. N., & Petry, P. M. (2021). LNG Regulation: Analysis of the Gemini Project under the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court. In Opportunities and Challenges of Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas in Brazil.

Costa, P. V. M., Costa, A. M., Szklo, A., Branco, D. C., Freitas, M., & Rosa, L. P. (2017). UGS in giant offshore salt caverns to substitute the actual Brazilian NG storage in LNG vessels. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 46, 451–476. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2017.06.035

Da Silva, R. I., Liaw, C., Fraga, D. M., Borges, C. M., & Dos Santos, E. M. (2017). Overview of Brazil liquefied natural gas industry. International Gas Research Conference Proceedings, 1, 670–679.

Dassunção, M., & Moutinho dos Santos, E. (2015). Gás Natural no Cenário Brasileiro (1st ed.). https://www.livrariasynergia.com.br/livros/000307/9788568483053/gas-natural-no-cenario-brasileiro.html

Delgado, F., & Lamassa, D. (2019). Vaca Muerta, Bolívia e Pré-Sal: como organizar todo esse gás? Caderno Especial - Caderno Opinião - O Novo Mercado de Gás Natural: Opiniões de Especialistas, Perspectivas e Desafios Para o Brasil.

Elliott, S., Bowles, A., Power, E., Gas, N., & Transition, E. (2021). France ’ s Total to focus on LNG , renewables in major clean energy drive. 1–4. https://www.spglobal.com/platts/en/market-insights/latest-news/electric-power/040221-us-and-iran-to-initiate-indirect-treaty-talks-on-april-6

EPE. (2010). Brazilian Oil & Gas Report 2019/2020 - Trends and Recent Developments. https://www.epe.gov.br/sites-en/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-197/topico-183/EPE_Brazilian Oil and Gas Report 2019-2020.pdf

EPE. (2016). Energia Termelétrica: Gás Natural, Biomassa, Carvão, Nuclear. https://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-173/Energia Termelétrica - Online 13maio2016.pdf

EPE. (2017). Panorama da Indústria de Gás Natural na Bolívia. http://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-250/topico-307/EPE 2017 - Panorama da Indústria de Gás Natural na Bolívia 22jun17.pdf

EPE. (2018a). Considerações sobre a Participação do Gás Natural na Matriz Energética no Longo Prazo. 20. http://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-227/topico-457/Considerações sobre a Participação do Gás Natural na Matriz Energética no Longo Prazo.pdf

EPE. (2018b). Plano Decenal de Expansão de Energia 2027. https://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/Documents/PDE 2027_aprovado_OFICIAL.pdf

EPE. (2018c). Terminais de Regaseificação de GNL nos Portos Brasileiros Panorama dos Principais Projetos e Estudos. https://www.epe.gov.br/pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/informe-tecnico-terminais-de-regaseificacao-de-gnl-nos-portos-brasileiros-panorama-dos-principais-projetos-e-estudos

EPE. (2019a). Informe: Custos de Gás Natural no Pré-Sal Brasileiro. https://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-368/INFORME - Custos de Gás Natural no Pré-Sal Brasileiro.pdf

EPE. (2019b). Informe: Mercado Internacional de GNL - 2018/2019. https://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-318/INFORME Mercado Internacional de GNL 2018-2027_rev1.pdf

EPE. (2019c). Plano Decenal de Expansão de Energia 2029. https://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-422/PDE 2029.pdf

EPE. (2019d). Plano Indicativo de Processamento e Escoamento de Gás Natural - PIPE. https://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-434/PIPE - Plano Indicativo de Processamento e Escoamento de Gás Natural.pdf

EPE. (2019e). Terminais de Regaseificação de GNL no Brasil - Panorama dos Principais Projetos - Ciclo 2018-2019. https://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-412/Nota Técnica - Terminais de Regaseificação de GNL no Brasil (Ciclo 2018-2019).pdf

EPE. (2020a). Acesso de Terceiros a Infraestruturas Essenciais: Doutrina de Infraestruturas Essenciais Aplicada a Gasodutos de Escoamento, Unidades de Processamento de Gás Natural e Terminais de GNL. http://www.epe.gov.br

EPE. (2020b). Nota Técnica: A Indústria de Gás Natural na Argentina: Panorama, Perspectivas e Oportunidades para o Brasil.

EPE. (2020c). Nota Técnica: Demanda de Gás Natural nos Mercados Nacional e Internacional - Horizonte 2020-2030. https://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-490/topico-531/EPE, 2020 - Nota Técnica Demanda de Gás Natural vFinal.pdf

EPE. (2020d). Nota Técnica: Monetização de Gàs Natural Offshore no Brasil.

EPE. (2020e). Nota Técnica: Projeção de Preços Internacionais de Petróleo e Derivados: 2020 - 2030. In Site EPE (Vol. 4).

EPE. (2020f). Nota Técnica: Terminais de GNL no Brasil - Panorama dos Principais Projetos - Ciclo 2019-2020.

EPE. (2020g). Nota Técnica - Monetização de Gás Natural Onshore no Brasil. https://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-487/EPE, 2020 - NT Monetização de GN onshore - Rev1.pdf

EPE. (2020h). PNE 2050 - Plano Nacional de Energia. https://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-227/topico-563/Relatorio Final do PNE 2050.pdf

EPE. (2021a). Nota Técnica: Experiências Iinternacionais na Regulação da Indústria de Óleo & Gás.

EPE. (2021b). Plano Decenal de Expansão de Energia 2030. Ministério de Minas e Energia. Empresa de Pesquisa Energética. https://www.epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-490/PDE 2030_RevisaoPosCP_rv2.pdf

EPE, ANP, BNDES, & Pré-Sal Petróleo. (2020). Estudo Sobre o Aproveitamento do Gás Natural do Pré-Sal. http://www.anp.gov.br/arquivos/estudos/aproveitamento-gn-pre-sal.pdf

Ferrel, & Hartline. (2013). Marketing Strategy - Text and Cases (Vol. 4, Issue 3). http://marefateadyan.nashriyat.ir/node/150

FGV. (2019a). Edição Especial - Caderno Opinião - O Novo Mercado de Gás Natural: Opinões de Especialistas, Perspectivas e Desafios para o Brasil. 128. https://fgvenergia.fgv.br/sites/fgvenergia.fgv.br/files/caderno_opiniao_-_agosto_-_web_versao_final.pdf

FGV. (2019b). Novo Mercado de Gás Natural. https://static.poder360.com.br/2019/04/FGV-SeminarioGasEnergy-29.abr_.pdf

FGV. (2019c). O Shale Gas à espreita no Brasil: desmistificando a exploração de recursos de baixa permeabilidade. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 8(9), 1–58.

FGV. (2021). O Desenvolvimento da Exploração de Recursos Não-Convencionais no Brasil: Novas Óticas de Desenvolvimento Regional. https://fgvenergia.fgv.br/sites/fgvenergia.fgv.br/files/caderno_desenvolvimento_da_exploracao_de_recursos_nao-convencionais_no_brasil.pdf

Fraga, D. M., Peyerl, D., Moutinho dos Santos, E., Luisa, A., Netto, A., Augusto, C., & Pereira, A. (2020). Oportunidades e desafios do Gás Natural e do Gás Natural Liquefeito no Brasil.

Goedhuys, M., & Veugelers, R. (2012). Innovation strategies , process and product innovations and growth : Firm-level evidence from Brazil. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 23(4), 516–529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strueco.2011.01.004

Gomes, I. (2016). O GNL no Brasil e no Cenário Internacional.

Gomes, P. A. (2018). Avaliação das Oportunidades do Gás Natural Liquefeito em Pequena Escala no Brasil sob as Perpectivas do Proutor, Transportados e do Consumidor Final [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRH]. https://pantheon.ufrj.br/handle/11422/12276

Hartley, P. R. (2015). The future of long-term LNG contracts. Energy Journal, 36(3), 209–233. https://doi.org/10.5547/01956574.36.3.phar

Hureau, G., & Serbutoviez, S. (2020). E&P Investments. Drilling Activities and Markets, Geophysics and Offshore Construction (2019). Economic Climate Outlook IFPEN. https://www.ifpenergiesnouvelles.com/article/ep-investments-drilling-activities-and-markets-geophysics-and-offshore-construction-2019

Jaeger, B. C. (2016). O Grande Gasoduto do Sul: Impactos Sobre a Integração Regional e o Desenvolvimento Sul-Americano. 5, 271–292.

Josiany, M., Medeiros, V., Souza, F., Filho, R., Pryscilla, Y., Costa, D., Ângela, P., & Freitas, B. (2021). Diagnóstico organizacional através da matriz SWOT : a aplicação da ferramenta em um curso de Administração Organizational diagnosis through the SWOT matrix : the application of the tool in a Administration Diagnóstico organizacional mediante la matriz DAF. 2021, 1–11. https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/11532/10255

Jr, R. G. F., & Martin, F. T. (2019). Trade and Commercial Interactions in the Atlantic Basin: Present and Future Issues. https://www.orkestra.deusto.es/images/investigacion/publicaciones/libros/libros-capitulos-libro/lng-trade-atlantic-basin.pdf#page=16

Kerdan, I. G., Jalil-Vega, F., Toole, J., Gulati, S., Giarola, S., & Hawkes, A. (2019). Modelling cost-effective pathways for natural gas infrastructure: A southern Brazil case study. Applied Energy, 255, 113799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113799

Lecarpentier, A. (2018). Recent Developments and Outlook for The Gas Market. IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN). https://www.ifpenergiesnouvelles.com/article/recent-developments-and-outlook-gas-market

Louro, P. M. M., Castiñeiras Filho, S. L. P., Souza, R. C., Almeida, E. F. de, & Fernandez, E. F. y. (2020). Análise de sensibilidade do despacho termelétrico de gás natural no planejamento nacional : efeitos e oportunidades. 2020(December).

Luo, G., Liu, S., Yan, X., & Guo, Y. (2021). Institutional constraints to China ’ s low carbon transition : A case study of China ’ s coal-to-gas program. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 57, 121–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strueco.2021.01.005

Martins, M. R., Pestana, M. A., Souza, G. F. M., & Schleder, A. M. (2016). Quantitative risk analysis of loading and offloading liquefied natural gas (LNG) on a floating storage and regasification unit (FSRU). Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 43, 629–653. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2016.08.001

MCTI, & ONU. (2017). Modelagem setorial de opções de baixo carbono para o setor de óleo e gás natural. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333652180_MODELAGEM_SETORIAL_DE_OPCOES_DE_BAIXO_CARBONO_PARA_O_SETOR_DE_OLEO_E_GAS_NATURAL

Michelena, B. D. (2018). Modelo Temporal da Oferta e Demanda do Gás Natural Liquefeito no Brasil [Universidade Federal da Bahia - UFBA]. https://repositorio.ufba.br/ri/handle/ri/30844

MME. (2019a). Nota Conjunta: Comitê De Promoção Da Concorrência No Mercado De Gás Natural Do Brasil. http://epe.gov.br/sites-pt/publicacoes-dados-abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-369/INFORME -

MME. (2019b). Novo Mercado de Gás. https://www.gov.br/mme/pt-br/assuntos/secretarias/petroleo-gas-natural-e-biocombustiveis/novo-mercado-de-gas

MME. (2019c). O Novo Mercado de Gás. http://www.mme.gov.br/web/guest/conselhos-e-comites/cmgn/novo-mercado-de-gas

MME. (2020). Boletim Mensal de Acompanhamento da Indústria de Gás Natural. https://www.gov.br/mme/pt-br/assuntos/secretarias/petroleo-gas-natural-e-biocombustiveis/publicacoes-1/boletim-mensal-de-acompanhamento-da-industria-de-gas-natural/2020/11-boletim-mensal-de-acompanhamento-da-industria-de-gas-natural-novembro-2020.pdf/view

Neumann, A. (2008). Linking Natural Gas Markets - Is LNG Doing its Job? SSRN Electronic Journal, September. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1425519

Neumann, A., Rüster, S., & Von Hirschhausen, C. (2015). Data Documentation: Long-Term Contracts in the Natural Gas Industry-Literature Survey and Data on 426 Contracts (1965-2014). www.diw.de

Petrobras. (2012). Novas Modalidades de Contratação de Gás Natural. http://www.zonaeletrica.com.br/downloads/NOVAS_MODALIDADES_PETROBRAS-04-01.pdf

Pirrong, C. (2014). Fifty years of global LNG. 1–15. https://www.trafigura.com/media/1284/2014_trafigura_fifty_years_of_global_lng_en.pdf

Richardson, J. D. (1977). Some Empirical Evidence on Commodity Arbitrage and The Law of One Price. 1975, 341–351. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022199678900272

Ritz, R. A. (2014). Price discrimination and limits to arbitrage : An analysis of global LNG markets. Energy Economics, 45, 324–332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2014.07.013

Santos, D. S. dos. (2019). Elementos para a Discussão Sobre a Renovação do Contrato de Fornecimento de Gás Natural Boliviano para o Brasil no Contexto do Aumento da Produção Brasileira de Gás.

Shaton, K., Hervik, A., & Hjelle, H. M. (2020). The environmental footprint of natural gas transportation: LNG vs. Pipeline. Economics of Energy and Environmental Policy, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.5547/2160-5890.8.2.ksha

Szirmai, A. (2012). Industrialisation as an engine of growth in developing countries , 1950 – 2005. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 23(4), 406–420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strueco.2011.01.005

Szirmai, A., & Verspagen, B. (2015). Manufacturing and economic growth in developing countries , 1950 – 2005. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 34, 46–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strueco.2015.06.002

Tavares, F. B., & Mitro, T. (2018). Manual for the Open LNG Regasification Model. October, 1–29.

Thomas, S., & Dawe, R. A. (2003). Review of ways to transport natural gas energy from countries which do not need the gas for domestic use. Energy, 28(14), 1461–1477. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0360-5442(03)00124-5

Zhang, H. Y., Xi, W. W., Ji, Q., & Zhang, Q. (2018). Exploring the driving factors of global LNG trade flows using gravity modelling. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 508–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.10.244

Downloads

Published

19/01/2022

How to Cite

AREND, L.; SILVA, Y. F. M. da; PEREIRA , C. A. A.; SANTOS, E. M. dos; PEYERL , D. Prospects and challenges of the liquefied natural gas market in Brazil. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 2, p. e11811225527, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i2.25527. Disponível em: https://www.rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/25527. Acesso em: 28 feb. 2024.

Issue

Section

Engineerings