Plant-based pharmacological alternatives in the seizure treatment: A patent review

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i2.25940

Keywords:

Medicinal plants; Seizure; Epilepsy; Anticonvulsant.

Abstract

Epilepsy, a neurologic condition associated with recurring seizures, affects around 70 million people worldwide and it is responsible for health costs. The current drug therapies used for treating epilepsy have low efficacy and many adverse side effects. In addition, drug resistance can also be found. The association of these factors considerably compromises the patient's pharmacotherapy care. Therefore, natural plant-derived products are promising therapeutic alternatives in the search for new curative options to treat epileptic seizures. Thus, the search was carried out at the patents database in the world, Espacenet, in January 2021 and compiled plant species (extracts, essential oils and isolated plant compounds) with a potential effect on the seizure, published between 2015 and 2020. In recent years, researchers and pharmaceutical companies have developed several methods for obtaining extracts, essential oils and purification of natural compounds, which have proven to be effective for the treatment of epileptic seizures in pre-clinical animal models. These findings hold potential promising for the treatment of epilepsy, especially for the management of drug-resistant, however, these reports are in their early stages and further studies need to be done for these compounds to be marketed.

References

Ahmad, S., & Zeb, A. (2020). Phytochemical profile and pharmacological properties of Trifolium repens. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2020-0015

Auditeau, E., Chassagne, F., Bourdy, G., Bounlu, M., Jost, J., Luna, J., Ratsimbazafy, V., Preux, P.-M., & Boumediene, F. (2019). Herbal medicine for epilepsy seizures in Asia, Africa and Latin America: A systematic review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 234, 119–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.12.049

Beghi, E. (2020). The Epidemiology of Epilepsy. Neuroepidemiology, 54(2), 185–191. https://doi.org/10.1159/000503831

Belousov, M. V., Yusubov, M. S., Gurev, A. M., Bezverkhnyaya, E. A., Kadyrova, T. V., Ermilova, E. V., Suslov, N. I., Poveteva, T. N., Nesterova, Y. V., Afanaseva, O. G., Kulpin, P. V., & Shaposhnikov, K. V. (2020). Agent Having Anticonvulsant Activity (Patent No RU2714687 (C1)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20200219&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=RU&NR=2714687C1&KC=C1&ND=1

Bulaj, G., Ahern, M. M., Kuhn, A., Judkins, Z. S., Bowen, R. C., & Chen, Y. (2016). Incorporating Natural Products, Pharmaceutical Drugs, Self-Care and Digital/Mobile Health Technologies into Molecular-Behavioral Combination Therapies for Chronic Diseases. Current Clinical Pharmacology, 11(2), 128–145. https://doi.org/10.2174/1574884711666160603012237

Byun, J.-I., Kim, D. W., Kim, K. T., Yang, K. I., Lee, S.-T., Seo, J.-G., No, Y. J., Kang, K. W., Kim, D., Kim, J. M., & Cho, Y. W. (2020). Treatment of epilepsy in adults: Expert opinion in South Korea. Epilepsy & Behavior, 105, 106942. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.106942

Cai, D., & Ran, X. (2018). Application of total flavonoid extract of tagetes patula in antiepileptic drug (Patent No CN107865896 (A)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20180403&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=CN&NR=107865896A&KC=A&ND=1

Cao, G., & Zhang, J. (2018). Application of radix tetrastigme extract in preparation of febrile convulsion resisting drug (Patent No CN108186812 (A)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20180622&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=CN&NR=108186812A&KC=A&ND=1

Catchpool, M., Dalziel, K., Mahardya, R. T. K., & Harvey, A. S. (2019). Cost-effectiveness of epileptic surgery compared with medical treatment in children with drug-resistant epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 97, 253–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.04.004

Chatterjee, A., Nair, R., Gandeti, R., Puppala, G. K., Chandran, V., Gorthi, S. P., & Radhakrishnan, K. (2020). Socioeconomic consequences of drug-resistant epilepsy in an adult cohort from southern India. Epilepsy & Behavior, 110, 107173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107173

Chen, S., Zeng, X., Zong, W., Wang, X., Chen, L., Zhou, L., Li, C., Huang, Q., Huang, X., Zeng, G., Hu, K., & Ouyang, D.-S. (2019). Aucubin Alleviates Seizures Activity in Li-Pilocarpine-Induced Epileptic Mice: Involvement of Inhibition of Neuroinflammation and Regulation of Neurotransmission. Neurochemical Research, 44(2), 472–484. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-018-2700-y

Chen, T., & Hu, J. (2016). Application of cannabinoid in preparing medicines for treating epilepsy (Patent No CN106074708 (A)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20161109&DB=&locale=en_EP&CC=CN&NR=106074708A&KC=A&ND=4

Chen, Z., Brodie, M. J., Liew, D., & Kwan, P. (2018). Treatment Outcomes in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy Treated With Established and New Antiepileptic Drugs: A 30-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study. JAMA Neurology, 75(3), 279–286. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.3949

da Fonsêca, D. V., da Silva Maia Bezerra Filho, C., Lima, T. C., de Almeida, R. N., & de Sousa, D. P. (2019). Anticonvulsant Essential Oils and Their Relationship with Oxidative Stress in Epilepsy. Biomolecules, 9(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120835

De, W. P. a M., Esguerra, C. V., Crawford, A. D., & Orellana, P. A. M. (2018). Anticonvulsant Activity of Turmeric Oil and Bisabolene Sesquiterpenoids (Patent No ES2661844 (T3)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20180404&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&C C=ES&NR=2661844T3&KC=T3&ND=1

Deivasigamani, M., Kannan, N., Sekar, N., & Lakshmanan, H. (2021). Safety assessment of ethanolic root extract of Zaleya decandra (EEZD) in Wistar rats. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 119, 104822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2020.104822

Ding, S., Li, X., Hua, Y., Dong, F., Lin, J., Du, Y., Shen, J., Xia, N., Zhu, Z., Wang, X., Zheng, R., & Xu, H. (2019). Risk factors for suicidal tendency in adult patients with epilepsy in China. Epilepsy & Behavior, 97, 118–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.06.006

Eisvand, F., Razavi, B. M., & Hosseinzadeh, H. (2020). The effects of Ginkgo biloba on metabolic syndrome: A review. Phytotherapy Research: PTR, 34(8), 1798–1811. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6646

Elliott, J., DeJean, D., Potter, B. K., Coyle, D., Clifford, T., McCoy, B., & Wells, G. A. (2020). Neurologists’ perspectives on medical cannabis for pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy in Canada: A qualitative interview study. Seizure, 78, 118–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2020.04.002

Farinon, B., Molinari, R., Costantini, L., & Merendino, N. (2020). The Seed of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.): Nutritional Quality and Potential Functionality for Human Health and Nutrition. Nutrients, 12(7), 1935. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071935

Filloux, F. M. (2015). Cannabinoids for pediatric epilepsy? Up in smoke or real science? Translational Pediatrics, 4(4), 271–282. https://doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2224-4336.2015.10.03

Fisher, R. S., Cross, J. H., French, J. A., Higurashi, N., Hirsch, E., Jansen, F. E., Lagae, L., Moshé, S. L., Peltola, J., Roulet Perez, E., Scheffer, I. E., & Zuberi, S. M. (2017). Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: Position Paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia, 58(4), 522–530. https://doi.org/10.1111/epi.13670

Fisher, R. S., van Emde Boas, W., Blume, W., Elger, C., Genton, P., Lee, P., & Engel, J. (2005). Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: Definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE). Epilepsia, 46(4), 470–472. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0013-9580.2005.66104.x

Gaston, T. E., & Friedman, D. (2017). Pharmacology of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 70, 313–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2016.11.016

Geoffrey, G., Volker, K., Benjamin, W., Royston, G., Jacqueline, C., Amesha, P., & Hannah, S. (2020). Cannabidiol-type cannabinoid compound (Patent No GB2579179 (A)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20200617&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=GB&NR=2579 179A&KC=A&ND=1

Guerreiro, C. A. M. (2016). Epilepsy: Is there hope? The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 144(5), 657–660. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1051_16

Guo, L., Zheng, W., Tan, X., & Wang, X. (2017). Application of Monochasma sheareri extract (Patent No CN106692436 (A)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20170524&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=CN&NR=106692436A&KC=A&ND=1

Hu, K., Ouyang, D., Li, X., Huang, Q., Zeng, X., Zhou, L., & Luo, W. (2016). Application of aucubin to preparation of medicine for treating or preventing epilepsy (Patent No CN105596357 (A)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20160525&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_E P&CC=CN& NR=105596357A&KC=A&ND=1

Huyan, T., Li, Q., Wang, Y.-L., Li, J., Zhang, J.-Y., Liu, Y.-X., Shahid, M. R., Yang, H., & Li, H.-Q. (2016). Anti-tumor effect of hot aqueous extracts from Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. and Juniperus sabina L – Two traditional medicinal plants in China. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 185, 289–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.03.044

Johnson, E. L. (2019). Seizures and Epilepsy. The Medical Clinics of North America, 103(2), 309–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2018.10.002

Jurikova, T., Mlcek, J., Skrovankova, S., Balla, S., Sochor, J., Baron, M., & Sumczynski, D. (2016). Black Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.) Flavonoids and Their Health Promoting Activity. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 21(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121685

Kim, J.-E., & Cho, K.-O. (2018). The Pilocarpine Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and EEG Monitoring Using Radiotelemetry System in Mice. Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE, 132. https://doi.org/10.3791/56831

Kwan, P., Arzimanoglou, A., Berg, A. T., Brodie, M. J., Allen Hauser, W., Mathern, G., Moshé, S. L., Perucca, E., Wiebe, S., & French, J. (2010). Definition of drug resistant epilepsy: Consensus proposal by the ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Commission on Therapeutic Strategies. Epilepsia, 51(6), 1069–1077. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02397.x

Lin, Y.-S., Peng, W.-H., Shih, M.-F., & Cherng, J.-Y. (2021). Anxiolytic effect of an extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 264, 113285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113285

Liu, Y., Gao, J., Peng, M., Meng, H., Ma, H., Cai, P., Xu, Y., Zhao, Q., & Si, G. (2018). A Review on Central Nervous System Effects of Gastrodin. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00024

Löscher, W. (2011). Critical review of current animal models of seizures and epilepsy used in the discovery and development of new antiepileptic drugs. Seizure, 20(5), 359–368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2011.01.003

Löscher, W. (2017). Animal Models of Seizures and Epilepsy: Past, Present, and Future Role for the Discovery of Antiseizure Drugs. Neurochemical Research, 42(7), 1873–1888. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-017-2222-z

Luo, G., Liang, Q., Wang, Y., Liu, Q., De, W. P., Esguerra, C., Crawford, A., Buenafe, O., Luyten, W., & De, B. W. (2015). Dan Shen Extracts and Compounds (Patent No WO2015004093 (A1)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20150115&DB=EPOD OC&locale=em _EP&CC=WO&NR=2015004093A1&KC=A1&ND=1

Ma, Y., Yang, Z., Hu, M., & Li, Z. (2017). Gastrodia elata superfine powder, and preparation method and use of gastrodia elata superfine powder (Patent No CN106334100 (A)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20170118&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=CN& NR=106334100A&KC=A&ND=1

Ma, Y., Zhou, K., Fan, J., & Sun, S. (2016). Traditional Chinese medicine: Potential approaches from modern dynamical complexity theories. Frontiers of Medicine, 10(1), 28–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-016-0434-2

Makaremi, S., Ganji, A., Ghazavi, A., & Mosayebi, G. (2021). Inhibition of tumor growth in CT-26 colorectal cancer-bearing mice with alcoholic extracts of Curcuma longa and Rosmarinus officinalis. Gene Reports, 22, 101006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genrep.2020.101006

Marshall, A. (2020). Traditional Chinese Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology (p. 455–482). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68864-0_60

Mathon, B., Bordes, A., Amelot, A., Carpentier, A., Méré, M., Dupont, S., & Samson, S. (2020). Evaluation of psychomotor functions in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 106, 106985. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.106985

Matias, M., Silvestre, S., Falcão, A., & Alves, G. (2016). Gastrodia elata and epilepsy: Rationale and therapeutic potential. Phytomedicine, 23(12), 1511–1526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2016.09.001

Mesraoua, B., Deleu, D., Kullmann, D. M., Shetty, A. K., Boon, P., Perucca, E., Mikati, M. A., & Asadi-Pooya, A. A. (2019). Novel therapies for epilepsy in the pipeline. Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B, 97, 282–290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.04.042

O’Connell, B. K., Gloss, D., & Devinsky, O. (2017). Cannabinoids in treatment-resistant epilepsy: A review. Epilepsy & Behavior, 70, 341–348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2016.11.012

Perucca, E. (2017). Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Hard Evidence at Last? Journal of Epilepsy Research, 7(2), 61–76. https://doi.org/10.14581/jer.17012

Pina, L. T. S., Guimarães, A. G., Santos, W. B. da R., Oliveira, M. A., Rabelo, T. K., & Serafini, M. R. (2020). nMonoterpenes as a perspective for the treatment of seizures: A Systematic Review. Phytomedicine, 153422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153422

Popovych, V. I., Beketova, H. V., Koshel, I. V., Tsodikova, O. A., Kriuchko, T. A., Abaturov, A. E., Vakulenko, L. I., & Gavrylenko, I. V. (2020). An open-label, multicentre, randomized comparative study of efficacy, safety and tolerability of the 5 plant—Extract BNO 1012 in the Delayed Antibiotic Prescription Method in children, aged 6 to 11 years with acute viral and post-viral rhinosinusitis. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 41(5), 102564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102564

Quintans Júnior, L. J., Almeida, J. R. G. S., Lima, J. T., Nunes, X. P., Siqueira, J. S., Oliveira, L. E. G. de, Almeida, R. N., Athayde-Filho, P. F. de, & Barbosa-Filho, J. M. (2008). Plants with anticonvulsant properties: A review. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 18, 798–819. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2008000500026

Quintans-Júnior, L. J., Souza, T. T., Leite, B. S., Lessa, N. M. N., Bonjardim, L. R., Santos, M. R. V., Alves, P. B., Blank, A. F., & Antoniolli, A. R. (2008). Phythochemical screening and anticonvulsant activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (Poaceae) leaf essential oil in rodents. Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology, 15(8), 619–624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2007.09.018

Rosenberg, E. C., Patra, P. H., & Whalley, B. J. (2017). Therapeutic effects of cannabinoids in animal models of seizures, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and epilepsy-related neuroprotection. Epilepsy & Behavior, 70, 319–327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2016.11.006

Russo, E. B., & Marcu, J. (2017). Cannabis Pharmacology: The Usual Suspects and a Few Promising Leads. Advances in Pharmacology (San Diego, Calif.), 80, 67–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2017.03.004

Ryvlin, P. (2005). The modern challenges of drug resistant epilepsy. Introduction. Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape, 7 Suppl 1, S1-2.

Sabedra, C. A. L., Lissner, L. A., & Rodrigues, L. M. (2017). Avaliação Da Metodologia De Extração De Óleo Residual Do Bagaço De Oliva. ANAIS CONGREGA MIC- Mostra de Iniciação Científica e ANAIS MIC JR - Mostra de Iniciação Científica Jr, 0(0), 789–790.

Samanta, D. (2019). Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Efficacy and Safety in Epilepsy. Pediatric Neurology, 96, 24–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.03.014

Shan, W., Chen, Y., Qiao, H., Wang, S., Wang, R., Wu, H., Wu, J., Fang, L., & Huang, H. (2016). Ginkgo biloba extract for treating epilepsy and application of ginkgo biloba extract for treating epilepsy (Patent No CN105287657 (A)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20160203&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=CN&NR=105287657A&KC=A&ND=1

Shi, M., He, W., Liu, Y., Li, X., Yang, S., & Xu, Q. (2013). Protective effect of total phenylethanoid glycosides from Monochasma savatieri Franch on myocardial ischemia injury. Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology, 20(14), 1251–1255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2013.06.014

Shimada, T., & Yamagata, K. (2018). Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Kindling Mouse Model. Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE, 136. https://doi.org/10.3791/56573

Siarava, E., Hyphantis, T., Katsanos, A. H., Pelidou, S.-H., Kyritsis, A. P., & Markoula, S. (2019). Depression and quality of life in patients with epilepsy in Northwest Greece. Seizure, 66, 93–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2019.02.012

Socała, K., Wyska, E., Szafarz, M., Nieoczym, D., & Wlaź, P. (2019). Acute effect of cannabidiol on the activity of various novel antiepileptic drugs in the maximal electroshock- and 6 Hz-induced seizures in mice: Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. Neuropharmacology, 158, 107733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.107733

Stafstrom, C. E., & Carmant, L. (2015). Seizures and Epilepsy: An Overview for Neuroscientists. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 5(6). https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a022426

Stott, C., Jones, N., Whalley, B., Stephens, G., & Williams, C. (2020). 7-Oh-Cannabidiol (7-Oh-Cbd) for Use in the Treatment of Epilepsy (Patent No EP3639814 (A1)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20200422&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=EP&NR=3639814A1&KC=A1&ND=1

Stott, C., Jones, N., Williams, R., & Whalley, B. (2018). Use of Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy (Patent No US2018228751 (A1)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20180816&DB=&locale=en_EP&CC=US&NR=2018228751A1&KC=A1&ND=4

Su, C.-Y., Ming, Q.-L., Rahman, K., Han, T., & Qin, L.-P. (2015). Salvia miltiorrhiza: Traditional medicinal uses, chemistry, and pharmacology. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 13(3), 163–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(15)30002-9

Sun, H., Chen, F., Wang, Q., Zhan, S., Gao, Z., & Ren, H. (2020). Extraction method of radix stellerae chamaejasmes total alkaloids and application of radix stellerae chamaejasmes total alkaloids (Patent No CN110960599 (A)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20200407&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=CN&NR=110960599A&KC=A&ND=1

Thijs, R. D., Surges, R., O’Brien, T. J., & Sander, J. W. (2019). Epilepsy in adults. Lancet (London, England), 393(10172), 689–701. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32596-0

Thurman, D. J., Beghi, E., Begley, C. E., Berg, A. T., Buchhalter, J. R., Ding, D., Hesdorffer, D. C., Hauser, W. A., Kazis, L., Kobau, R., Kroner, B., Labiner, D., Liow, K., Logroscino, G., Medina, M. T., Newton, C. R., Parko, K., Paschal, A., Preux, P.-M., … ILAE Commission on Epidemiology. (2011). Standards for epidemiologic studies and surveillance of epilepsy. Epilepsia, 52 Suppl 7, 2–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03121.x

Tomson, T., Nashef, L., & Ryvlin, P. (2008). Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: Current knowledge and future directions. The Lancet. Neurology, 7(11), 1021–1031. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70202-3

Veeresham, C. (2012). Natural products derived from plants as a source of drugs. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research, 3(4), 200–201. https://doi.org/10.4103/2231-4040.104709

Verma, N., Gupta, S. K., Tiwari, S., & Mishra, A. K. (2021). Safety of Ashwagandha Root Extract: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, study in Healthy Volunteers. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 57, 102642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102642

Vilasboas-Campos, D., Costa, M. D., Teixeira-Castro, A., Rios, R., Silva, F. G., Aierken, A., Zhang, X., Bessa, C., Dias, A. C. P., & Maciel, P. (2020). Data on the effects of Hyptis spp. And Lycium spp. Plant extracts in C. elegans models of genetically determined neurodegenerative diseases. Data in Brief, 33, 106598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106598

Vyas, S., Kothari, S. L., & Kachhwaha, S. (2019). Nootropic medicinal plants: Therapeutic alternatives for Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 17–18, 100291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hermed.2019.100291

Wang, J., Li, Y., Huang, W.-H., Zeng, X.-C., Li, X.-H., Li, J., Zhou, J., Xiao, J., Xiao, B., Ouyang, D.-S., & Hu, K. (2017). The Protective Effect of Aucubin from Eucommia ulmoides Against Status Epilepticus by Inducing Autophagy and Inhibiting Necroptosis. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 45(3), 557–573. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X17500331

Wang, Y., Li, M., Liang, Y., Yang, Y., Liu, Z., Yao, K., Chen, Z., & Zhai, S. (2017). Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Depression: Applications, Efficacies and Mechanisms. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 23(34), 5180–5190. https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612823666170918120018

Whalley, B., Williams, C., Stephens, G., & Futamura, T. (2018). Use of the phytocannabinoid cannabidivarin (CBDV) in the treatment of epilepsy (Patent No AU2018217303 (A1)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20180906&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=AU&NR=2018217303A1&KC=A1&ND=1

Xu, S., & Liu, P. (2013). Tanshinone II-A: New perspectives for old remedies. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, 23(2), 149–153. https://doi.org/10.1517/13543776.2013.743995

Yan, M., Li, M., Gu, S., Sun, Z., Ma, T., & Ma, X. (2020). Ginkgo biloba extract protects diabetic rats against cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion injury by suppressing oxidative stress and upregulating the expression of glutamate transporter 1. Molecular Medicine Reports, 21(4), 1809–1818. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.10990

Yang, B., Liu, Y., & Kuang, H. (2019). Antiepileptic effect of different extracts of aboveground part of bupleurum chinense (Patent No CN110522777 (A)). https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=20191203&DB=&locale=en_EP&CC=CN&NR=110522777A&KC=A&ND=4

Yang, G., Wang, Y., Sun, J., Zhang, K., & Liu, J. (2016). Ginkgo Biloba for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 16(5), 520–528. https://doi.org/10.2174/1568026615666150813143520

Yao, I., Stein, E. S., & Maggio, N. (2019). Cannabinoids, hippocampal excitability and efficacy for the treatment of epilepsy. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 202, 32–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2019.06.002

Yu, D., Zhang, P., Li, J., Liu, T., Zhang, Y., Wang, Q., Zhang, J., Lu, X., & Fan, X. (2020). Neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2020.06.002

Yu, N., Lin, X., Zhang, S., & Di, Q. (2019). Analysis of the reasons and costs of hospitalization for epilepsy patients in East China. Seizure, 72, 40–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2019.09.013

Downloads

Published

29/01/2022

How to Cite

PINA, L. T. S.; GUIMARÃES, A. G.; SAMPAIO, L. A.; GUIMARÃES, J. O.; RABELO, T. K.; SAVI, F. M.; SERAFINI, M. R. Plant-based pharmacological alternatives in the seizure treatment: A patent review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 2, p. e40411225940, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i2.25940. Disponível em: https://www.rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/25940. Acesso em: 29 feb. 2024.

Issue

Section

Review Article