Landfill sludge treatment: a proposal based on the circular bioeconomy perspective




Biotechnology; Landfill leachate; Circular economy; Microalgae; Wastewater.


The cultivation of microalgae in liquid residues appears as a biotechnological possibility due to the sustainability of the process, since pollutants present in residues such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are used by these microorganisms as nutrients for their growth and biomass production with added value. The objective of this work was to develop a prototype of photobioreactors to remove nutrients: nitrogen and phosphorus through the cultivation of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in landfill leachate diluted in domestic effluent. The cultivation lasted 28 days where the removal of nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus was evaluated, as well as microalgal growth. The best results of algal growth were obtained in photobioreactors containing 100% domestic effluent and 15% slurry with chlorophyll concentration of 2.277,08±247,21 µg.L-1 and 223,12±17,44 µg L-1, respectively, on the 21st day of culture. Regarding the removal of nutrients of nitrogen and phosphorus, it was possible to observe that the species used in this study showed good efficiency, about 72,36% for nitrogen and 44.32% for phosphorus at the end of the cultivation time.


American public health association - APHA, AWWA, WEF. (2012). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. American public health association, 1360.

American public health association – APHA. (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater 4500-p a/b/e - 20th ed.

Andersen, R.A., Berges, J.A., Harrison, P.J. & Watanabe, M. M. (2005). Appendix a-recipes for freshwater and seawater media. 429-538.

Andrade, D. S. & Filho, A. C. (2014). Potencialidades e desafios do cultivo. Instituto agronômico do paraná (iapar) 1.

Associação Brasileira das Empresas de Limpeza Pública e Resíduos Especiais – ABRELPE. (2015). Estimativas dos custos para viabilizar a universalização da destinação adequada de resíduos sólidos no Brasil.

Barbosa, M. S., Marques, I. M., & Moreira, I.T.A. (2017). Viabilidade no cultivo de microalgas dulciaquicolas em meio lixiviado de aterro sanitário. 4, 1089-1096.

Batista, A., Ambrosano, L., Graça, S., Sousa, C., Marques, P. A. S. S., Ribeiro, B., Botrel, E. P., Neto, P. C. & Gouveia, L. (2015). Combining urban wastewater treatment with biohydrogen production – an integrated microalgae-based approach. Bioresource technology, 184, 230-235.

Chen, W., Zhang, A., Gu, Z. & Li. Q. (2018). Enhanced degradation of refractory organics in concentrated landfill leachate by fe0/h2o2 coupled with microwave irradiation. Chem. Eng. J. 354, 680-691.

Chong, J. W. R., Tan, X., Khoo, K. S., Ng, H. S., Jonglertjunya, W., Yew, G. Y. & Show, P. L. (2022). Microalgae-based bioplastics: Future solution towards mitigation of plastic wastes. Environmental research. 206, 112620.

Costa, A.M., Alfaia, R.G.D.S.M. & Campos, J.C. (2019). landfill leachate treatment in brazil – an overview. J. Environ. Manag. 232, 110-116.

Dogaris, I., Ammar, E. & Philippidis, G.P. (2020). Prospects of integrating algae technologies into landfill leachate treatment. World j microbiol biotechnol. 36, 39.

Duarte, I. F., Ribeiro, V. De S., Santos, M. I. G. R. Dos, Costa, T. A. D., Santana, M. B. De, Oliveira, A. C. V., Marques, I. M., Ñañez, K. B., Moreira, Í. T. A. (2021). Remediation mechanisms of polycyclic aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons using microalgae and cyanobacteria with emphasis on circular bioeconomy. Research, society and development. 10, (11) E512101119954. Doi: 10.33448/rsd-v10i11.19954.

Hu, D., Zhang, J., Chu, R., Yin, Z., Hu, J., Nugroho, Y. K., Li, Z. & Zhu, L. (2021). Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus dimorphus co-cultivation with landfill leachate for pollutant removal and lipid production. Bioresource Technology. 342, 126003.

Iasimone, F., Panico, A., De Felice, V., Fantasma, F., Iorizzi, M., & Pirozzi, F. (2018). Effect of light intensity and nutrients supply on microalgae cultivated in urban wastewater: Biomass production, lipids accumulation and settleability characteristics. Journal of Environmental Management, 2231078–1085.

IBGE-ALBREPE. (2010). Estimativa de geração de resíduos orgânicos e recicláveis nos próximos 20 anos. São paulo.

Jong, M., Joss, S., Schraven, D., ZHAN, C. & Weijnen, M. (2015). Sustainable–smart–resilient–low carbon–eco–knowledge cities, making sense of a multitude of concepts promoting sustainable urbanization. Journal of cleaner production, 109, 25–38.

Kothari, R., Ahmad, S. & Pathak, V.V. (2019). Algal-based biofuel generation through flue gas and wastewater utilization: a sustainable prospective approach. Biomass conv. Bioref.

Lam M. K., Yusoff, M. I., Uemura, Y., Lim, J. W., Khoo, C. G., Lee, K. T. & Ong, H. C. (2017). Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris using a nutrient source of domestic wastewater for biodiesel production: growth conditions and kinetic studies. Renewable energy. 103, 197-207.

Li, J., Qiao, J., Tang, J., Jin, Z., Lu, Q., Cheng, J., Zhou, X., Zhang, X., Fu, S., Wan, T., Li, H., Chen, Q. & Zhou, W. (2022). Enhancement of ammonium removal from landfill leachate using microalgae by an integrated strategy of nutrient balance and trophic mode conversion. Algal Research. 61, 102572.

Lopes, M.S.G. (2015). Engineering biological systems toward a sustainable bioeconomy. J ind microbiol biotechnol 42, 813–838.

Lourenço. S.O. (2006). Cultivo de microalgas marinhas: princípios e aplicações. Editora rima, são carlos, São Paulo.

Luo, H., Zeng, Y., Cheng, Y., He, D. & Pan, X. (2020). Recent advances in municipal landfill leachate: a review focusing on its characteristics, treatment, and toxicity assessment. Science of the total environment. 703, 135468.

Luz, M. V. S. Da., Santos, R. S. S., Oliveira, A. C. V., Marques, I. M., Brioude, M. De M. & Moreira, Í. T. A. (2020). Surface water quality study in foz river lucaia, salvador (ba), brazil. Research, society and development. 9, (8) E736986287. Doi: 10.33448/rsd-v9i8.6287.

Maia, J. L., Cardoso, J. S., Mastrantonio, D. J. S., Bierhals, C. K., Moreira, J. B., Costa, J. A. V. & Morais, M. G. (2020). Microalgae starch: A promising raw material for the bioethanol production. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 165, 2739 – 2749.

Maity J. P., Hou, C. P., Majumder, D., Bundschuh, J., Kulp, T. R., Chen, C. Y., Chuang, L. T., Nathan, C. C. N., Jean, J. S., Yang, T. C. & Chen, C. C. (2014). The production of biofuel and bioelectricity associated with wastewater treatment by green algae. Journal energy. 77, 94 - 103.

Marques, I. M., Melo, N. R., Oliveira, A. C. V. & Moreira, Í. T. A. (2020). Bioremediation of urban river wastewater using chlorella vulgaris microalgae to generate biomass with potential for biodiesel production. Research, society and development. 9, (7) E823974882. Doi: 10.33448/rsd-v9i7.4882.

Marques, I. M., Oliveira, A. C. V., Oliveira, O. M. C., Sales, E. A. & Moreira, Í. T.A. (2021). A photobioreactor using nannochloropsis oculata marine microalgae for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sorption of metals in produced water. Chemosphere. 281, 130775.

Martinez, M.E., Sánchez, S., Jiménez J.M., Yousfi, F. El. & Muñoz, L. (2000). Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from urban wastewater by the microalga schenedesmus obliquus. Bioresource technology. 73, 263-272.

Md, A., Jin, F., Choi, J. K., Jeong, U-C. & Kang, S. J. (2019). Effects of marine microalgae (Schizochytrium sp.) In prepared feeds on growth and survival rate of juvenile sea cucumber apostichopus japoncus. Research journal for engineering, technology, and sciences. 30 (1). 325-337.

Miao, L., Yang, G., Tao, T. & Peng,Y. (2019). Recent advances in nitrogen removal from landfill leachate using biological treatments - a review. J. Environ. Manag. 235, 178-185.

Ministério do Meio Ambiente. Resolução conama nº 357. De 17 de março de 2005, publicada no dou nº 053, de 18/03/2005, págs. 58-63. Disponível em: <> acesso em: 12 de dez.

Nayak M., Karemore A. & Sem R. (2016). Performance evaluation of microalgae for concomitant wastewater bioremediation, CO2 biofixation and lipid biosynthesis for biodiesel application. Algal research. (16), 216 – 223.

Oliveira, A. C. V., Silva, A. S. & Moreira, Í. T. A. (2019). Economia circular: conceitos e contribuições na gestão de resíduos urbanos. Revista de desenvolvimento econômico. 3, (44) 273 – 289.

Paskuliakova, A., Tonry, S. & Touzet, N. (2016). Phycoremediation of landfill leachate with chlorophytes: phosphate a limiting factor on ammonia nitrogen removal, Water Res. 99, 180–187,

Pereira, J. L. & Branco, L. H. Z. (2007). Influência do nitrato e fosfato no crescimento de schizomeris leibleinii kützing (chaetophorales, chlorophyta). Acta bot. Bras. 21(1): 155-162.

Quan, X., Hu, Ru., Chang, H., Tang, X., Huang, X., Cheng, C., Zhong, N. & Yang, L. (2020). Enhancing microalgae growth and landfill leachate treatment through ozonization. J. Clean. Prod. 248, 119182.

Ruiz-Marin A., Mendoza-Espinosa L.G. & Stepheson T. (2010). Growth and nutriente removal in free and immobilized green algae in batch and semi-continuous cultures treating real wastewater, bioresource technology. 101, 58–64.

Saleem, S., Zeshan, Iftikhar, R., Zafar, M. I. & Sohail, N. F. (2022). Growth kinetics of microalgae cultivated in different dilutions of fresh leachate for sustainable nutrient recovery and carbon fixation. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 178, 108299.

Tsui, T. & Wong, J.W.C. (2019). A critical review: emerging bioeconomy and waste-to-energy technologies for sustainable municipal solid waste management. Waste dispos. Sustain. Energy 1, 151–167.

Wang, Z., Gao, M., Wei, J., Ma, K., Zhang, J., Yang, Y. & Yu, S. (2016). Extracellular polymeric substances, microbial activity and microbial community of biofilm and suspended sludge at different divalent cadmium concentrations. Bioresource technology. 205, 213-221.

Xiao, C., Liao, Q., Fu, Q., Huang, Y., Chen, H., Zhang, H., Xia, A., Zhu, X., Reungsang, A. & Liu, Z. (2019). A solar-driven continuous hydrothermal pretreatment system for biomethane production from microalgae biomass. Applied energy. 236, 1011 – 1018.

Yan, H., Primos, It., Zhang, C. & Zhou. Q. (2015). Perfluoroalkyl acids in municipal landfill leachates from china: occurrence, fate during leachate treatment and potential impact on groundwater, sci. Total environ. 524–525, 23-31.



How to Cite

ASSIS, R. R. de .; BARBOSA, M. S. .; LACERDA, E. M. C. .; MACHADO MARQUES, I.; MOREIRA, Ícaro T. A. Landfill sludge treatment: a proposal based on the circular bioeconomy perspective. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 3, p. e12911326075, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i3.26075. Disponível em: Acesso em: 7 dec. 2023.