Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) coinfection in people treated at a Referral Service in Southern Brazil




HIV/AIDS; Hepatitis C; Hepatitis B; Coinfection; Intravenous drugs.


This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection and associated factors in people living with HIV/AIDS enrolled in a Specialized Care Service in Southern Brazil (Pelotas, RS). For methodology, a descriptive retrospective outpatient study was carried out with 1,017 people living with HIV/AIDS, aged 18 years or older, enrolled in the SAE between 2009 and 2014. The analyzed characteristics were divided into three levels: sociodemographic (gender, skin color, age, schooling in years of study), behavioral (home arrangement, smoking status, alcohol use, illicit drug use and injectable drug use, blood transfusion, heterosexual and homosexual contact) and clinical (diabetes, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, hepatitis B, obesity, first CD4 count and lowest CD4 count). The results showed a prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection in the assessed individuals in 8.3% (84/1,017). Women living with HIV had a 35% lower prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection than men living with HIV. Injectable drug use (32.4%) had more than twice the HIV/HCV coinfection rate. Moreover, patients with hepatitis B (25%) had a sixfold higher prevalence rate of HIV/HCV coinfection. We concluded that male individuals, injectable drug use, and patients with hepatitis B are more likely to have HIV/HCV coinfection. It is important to implement comprehensive strategies for preventing, diagnosing, and treating viral hepatitis in people living with HIV/AIDS.


Baltazar, C. S., Boothe, M., Kellogg, T., Ricardo, P., Sathane, I., Fazito, E., Raymond, H. F., Temmerman, M., & Luchters, S. (2020). Prevalence and risk factors associated with HIV/hepatitis B and HIV/hepatitis C coinfections among people who inject drugs in Mozambique. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 851.

Bonfim, R. O., Andrade, R. L. P., Reis, R. K., Ferreira, M. R. L., Orfão, N. H., Villa, T. C. S., & Monroe, A. A. (2021). Quality of life of people with HIV/hepatitis C coinfection: a systematic review. Research, Society and Development, 10(10), e256101018162.

Brazil. Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de vigilância em saúde, Departamento de DST/AIDS e Hepatites Virais. Boletim epidemiológico 2021. Available at . Accessed in February 11th 2021.

Bruno, S., Di Marco, V., Iavarone, M., Roffi, L., Boccaccio, V., Crosignani, A., Cabibbo, G., Rossi, S., Calvaruso, V., Aghemo, A., Giacomelli, L., Craxì, A., Colombo, M., & Maisonveuve, P. (2017). Improved survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and compensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis who attained sustained virological response. Liver International, 37(10), 1526–1534.

Butt, Z. A., Wong, S., Rossi, C., Binka, M., Wong, J., Yu, A., Darvishian, M., Alvarez, M., Chapinal, N., McKee, G., Gilbert, M., Tyndall, M. W., Krajden, M., & Janjua, N. Z. (2020). Concurrent hepatitis C and B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections are associated with higher mortality risk illustrating the impact of syndemics on health outcomes. Open Forum Infectious Disease, 7(9), ofaa347.

Carvalho, C. I. M., Ferreira, V. S., & Leitão, J. M. S. R. (2020). Perfil epidemiológico de pacientes com Hepatite C no componente especializado da assistência farmacêutica do Piauí. Research, Society and Development, 9(3), e06932265.

Chen, M., Wong, W. W., Law, M. G., Kiertiburanakul, S., Yunihastuti, E., Merati, T. P., Lim, P. L., Chaiwarith, R., Phanuphak, P., Lee, M. P., Kumarasamy, N., Saphonn, V., Ditangco, R., Sim, B. L. H., Nguyen, K. V., Pujari, S., Kamarulzaman, A., Zhang, F., Pham, T. T., Choi, J. Y., Oka, S., Kantipong, P., Mustafa, M., Ratanasuwan, W., Durier, N., & Chen, Y. M. A. (2016). Hepatitis B and C Co-Infection in HIV Patients from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database: Analysis of Risk Factors and Survival. PLoS One, 11(3), e0150512.

Focà, E., Fabbiani, M., Prosperi, M., Roldan, E. Q., Castelli, F., Maggiolo, F., Di Filippo, E., Di Giambeneetto, S., Gagliardini, R., Saracino, A., Di Pietro, M., Gori, A., Sighinolfi, L., Pan, A., Postorino, M. C., Torti, C., & Italian Master Cohort. (2016). Liver fibrosis progression and clinical outcomes are intertwined: role of CD4+ T-cell count and NRTI exposure from a large cohort of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with detectable HCV-RNA: A MASTER cohort study. Medicine (Baltimore), 95(29), e4091.

Gallo, R. C. & Montagnier, L. (2003). The discovery of HIV as the cause of AIDS. The New England Journal of Medicine, 349, 2283–2285.

Gedefie, A., Adamu, A., Alemayehu, E., Kassa, Y., Belete, M. A. (2021). Hepatitis C Virus Infection among HIV-Infected Patients Attending Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Microbiology, 2021, 6675851.

Le Loup, G., de Assis, A., Costa-Couto, M. H., Thoenig, J.-C., Fleury, S., de Camargo, K., & Larouzé, B. (2009). A public policy approach to local models of HIV/AIDS control in Brazil. American Journal of Public Health, 99(6), 1108–1115.

Matthews, P. C., Geretti, A. M., Goulder, P. J., & Klenerman, P. (2014). Epidemiology and impact of HIV coinfection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Clinical Virology, 61(1), 20–33.

Mirzaei, M., Poorolajal, J., Khazaei, S., & Saatchi, M. (2013). Survival rate of AIDS disease and mortality in HIV-infected patients in Hamadan, Iran: a registry-based retrospective cohort study (1997-2011). International Journal of STD & AIDS, 24(11), 859–866.

Moorman, J. P., Krolikowski, M. R., Mathis, S. M., & Pack, R. P. (2018). HIV/HCV Co-infection: Burden of Disease and Care Strategies in Appalachia. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 15(4), 308–314.

Mugisha, J. O., Schatz, E. J., Randell, M., Kuteesa, M., Kowal, P., Negin, J., & Seeley, J. (2016). Chronic disease, risk factors and disability in adults aged 50 and above living with and without HIV: findings from the Wellbeing of Older People Study in Uganda. Global Health Action, 9, 31098.

Palella, F. J., Jr., & Phair, J. P. (2011). Cardiovascular disease in HIV infection. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, 6(4), 266–271.

Pereira A. S., Shitsuka, D. M., Parreira, F. J. & Sitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologia da pesquisa científica. UFSM.

Peters, L., Laut, K., Resnati, C., Del Campo, S., Leen, C., Falconer, K., Trofimova, T., Paduta, D., Gatell, J., Rauch, A., Lacombe, K., Domingo, P., Chkhartishvili, N., Zangerie, R., Matulionyte, R., Mitsura, V., Benfield, T., Zilmer, K., Khromova, I., Lundgren, J., Rockstroh, J., Mocroft, A., & EuroSIDA Study Group. (2018). Uptake of hepatitis C virus treatment in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients across Europe in the era of direct-acting antivirals. AIDS, 32(14), 1995–2004.

Platt, L., Easterbrook, P., Gower, E., McDonald, B., Sabin, K., McGowan, C., Yanny, I., Razavi, H., & Vickerman, P. (2016). Prevalence and burden of HCV co-infection in people living with HIV: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 797–808.

Puglia, M., Stasi, C., Da Frè, M., & Voller, F. (2016). Prevalence and characteristics of HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfections in Tuscany. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Disease, 20, 330–334.

Raboni, S. M., Tuon, F. F., Beloto, N. C., Demeneck, H., Oliveira, A., Largura, D., Sagrado, A. G., Lima, B. P., Franzoni, J. P., & Pedroso, M. L. (2014). Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus co-infection in Southern Brazil: clinical and epidemiological evaluation. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Disease, 18(6), 664–668.

Rallón, N., García, M., García-Samaniego, J., Rodríguez, N., Cabello, A., Restrepo, C., Álvarez, B., García, R., Górgolas, M., & Benito, J. M. (2017). HCV coinfection contributes to HIV pathogenesis by increasing immune exhaustion in CD8 T-cells. PLoS One, 12(3), 0173943.

Rockstroh, J. K. (2003). Management of hepatitis B and C in HIV co-infected patients. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 34(Suppl 1), 59–65.

Rosenthal, E., Roussillon, C., Salmon-Céron, D., Georget, A., Hénard, S., Huleux, T., Gueit, I., Mortier, E., Costagliola, D., Morlat, P., Chêne, G., Cacoub, P., Mortalité 2010, & Germivic Study Groups. (2015). Liver-related deaths in HIV-infected patients between 1995 and 2010 in France: the Mortavic 2010 study in collaboration with the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA (ANRS) EN 20 Mortalité 2010 survey. HIV Medicine,16(4), 230–239.

Ryom, L., Cotter, A., de Miguel, L., Béguelin, C., Podlekareva, D., Arribas, J. R., Marzolini, C., Mallon, P. G. M., Rauch, A., Kirk, O., Molina, J. M., Guaraldi, G., Winston, A., Bhagani, S., Cinque, P., Kowalska, J. D., Collins, S., & Battegay, M. (2020). 2019 update of the European AIDS Clinical Society Guidelines for treatment of people living with HIV version 10.0. HIV Medicine, 21(10), 617–624.

Şahin, M., Aydın, Ö. A., Karaosmanoğlu, H. K., & Yıldırım, M. (2021). Seroprevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV among HIV Positive Patients. Viral Hepatitis Journal, 27(1), 24–30.

Silva, C. M., Peder, L. D., Silva, E. S., Previdelli, I., Pereira, O. C. N., Teixeira, J. J. V., & Bertolini, D. A. (2018). Impact of HBV and HCV coinfection on CD4 cells among HIV-infected patients: a longitudinal retrospective study. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 12(11), 1009–1018.

Tengan, F. M., Ibrahim, K. Y., Dantas, B. P., Manchiero, C., Magri, M. C., & Bernardo, W. M. (2016). Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus among people living with HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review. BMC Infectious Diseases, 16, 663.

Tien, P. C. (2005). Management and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected adults: recommendations from the Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and National Hepatitis C Program Office. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 100(10), 2338–2354.

UNAIDS – Joint United Nations Programmer on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and World Health Organization (WHO). Report on the global AIDS epidemic 2021. Available at

Weitzel, T., Rodríguez, F., Noriega, L. M., Marcotti, A., Duran, L., Palavecino, C., Porte, L., Aguilera, X., Wolff, M., & Cortes, C. P. (2020). Hepatitis B and C virus infection among HIV patients within the public and private healthcare systems in Chile: A cross-sectional serosurvey. PLoS One, 15(1), e0227776.

WHO – World Health Organization. Global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis 2016-2021. Towards ending viral hepatitis. World Health Organization; 2016.

Zayedi, E., Makvandi, M., Teimoori, A., Samarbaf-Zadeh, A. R., Chafari, S., Seyedian, S. S., & Azaran, A. (2020). Prevalence of hepatitis C virus among HIV-infected patients. Iranian Journal of Microbiology, 12(2), 156–163.

Zheng, Y. X., Ma, S. J., Xiong, Y. H., Fan, X. G. (2020). Efficacy and safety of direct acting antiviral regimens for hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection: systematic review and network meta-analysis. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 35(9), 1477–1487.




How to Cite

VECCHI, M. D. .; PINTO TELIS SILVEIRA, M.; TAVARES, G. U. da S. .; WILLERS, M. W. .; WALLER, S. B. .; PEREIRA, D. I. B. . Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) coinfection in people treated at a Referral Service in Southern Brazil. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 3, p. e22611326405, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i3.26405. Disponível em: Acesso em: 17 jun. 2024.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences