Obtention and characterization of soybean oil organogels structured with sugarcane wax and its hot ethanol soluble fractions





Organogels; Sugarcane wax; Crystal morphology; Rheology; hardness


Sugarcane wax (SCW) was fractionated using hot ethanol and a simple washout system, the obtained fractions soluble (SSCW) and insoluble (ISCW) were used to produce organogels crystallized at two different temperatures (5 and 25°C) at the concentrations of 1, 2, 3 and 4% (w/w). The laboratory research evaluated the behavior of organgels obtained from sugarcane wax (and its fractions), all organogels were assessed due to its microstructure, thermal behavior, rheological behavior and mechanical resistance. Samples were visually assessed for stability at a controlled temperature oven (at 5, 25 and 35°C), and the thermal behavior for SCW, SSCW and ISCW were different. The enthalpy variation changed from 118.87 to 129.63 and 85.65 J/g for the fractions. Organogels obtained from these materials were somewhat similar during crystallization (TPeak of 42.83, 37.19 and 36.23°C respectively), crystallization and melting enthalpy variation presented hysteresis as observed for other waxy organogels. SSCW organogels were significantly harder than the obtained with SCW and ISCW. Micrographs of the organogels showed a more organized network present on SSCW organogel when compared with SCW that was more organized than ISCW organogels. The difference on the microstructure observed explains the difference on the mechanical behavior of organogels formed with sugarcane wax hot ethanol-soluble and insoluble fractions.


Abdallah, D. J., Lu, L., & Weiss, R. G. (1999). Thermoreversible Organogels from Alkane Gelators with One Heteroatom. Chemistry of Materials, 11(10), 2907–2911. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm9902826

Abdallah, D. J., & Weiss, R. G. (2000). n -Alkanes Gel n -Alkanes (and Many Other Organic Liquids). Langmuir, 16(2), 352–355. https://doi.org/10.1021/la990795r

Almeida, I. F., & Bahia, M. F. (2006). Evaluation of the physical stability of two oleogels. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 327(1–2), 73–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2006.07.036

Alvarez-Mitre, F. M., Morales-Rueda, J. A., Dibildox-Alvarado, E., Charó-Alonso, M. A., & Toro-Vazquez, J. F. (2012). Shearing as a variable to engineer the rheology of candelilla wax organogels. Food Research International, 49(1), 580–587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.08.025

Blake, A. I., Co, E. D., & Marangoni, A. G. (2014). Structure and Physical Properties of Plant Wax Crystal Networks and Their Relationship to Oil Binding Capacity. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 91(6), 885–903. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-014-2435-0

Bot, A., Adel, R., & Roijers, E. C. (2008). Fibrils of γ-Oryzanol + β-Sitosterol in Edible Oil Organogels. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 85(12), 1127–1134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-008-1298-7

Campos, R. (2005). Experimental Methodology. In Fat Crystal Networks (Vol. 41, Issue 3, pp. 267–348). Marcel Dekker. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-93322005000300015

Chaves, K. F., Rocha, J. C. B., & Arellano, D. B. (2020). Simplified process to produce margarines with reduced saturated fatty acids using vegetable wax organogels. Research, Society and Development, 9(4), 165943046. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i4.3046

Daniel, J., & Rajasekharan, R. (2003). Organogelation of plant oils and hydrocarbons by long-chain saturated FA, fatty alcohols, wax esters, and dicarboxylic acids. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 80(5), 417–421. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-003-0714-0

Dassanayake, L. S. K., Kodali, D. R., Ueno, S., & Sato, K. (2009). Physical Properties of Rice Bran Wax in Bulk and Organogels. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 86(12), 1163–1173. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-009-1464-6

Dassanayake, L. S. K., Kodali, D. R., Ueno, S., & Sato, K. (2012). Crystallization kinetics of organogels prepared by rice bran wax and vegetable oils. Journal of Oleo Science, 61(1), 1–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22188800

Ema, Y., Ikeya, M., & Okamoto, M. (2006). Foam processing and cellular structure of polylactide-based nanocomposites. Polymer, 47(15), 5350–5359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2006.05.050

Gandra, K. M. (2006). Master Thesis - Production and characterization of sugarcane wax and its fractions. Universidade Estadual de Campinas.

Himawan, C., Starov, V. M., & Stapley, a G. F. (2006). Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of fat crystallization. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 122(1–3), 3–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2006.06.016

Hughes, N. E., Marangoni, A. G., Wright, A. J., Rogers, M. a., & Rush, J. W. E. (2009). Potential food applications of edible oil organogels. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 20(10), 470–480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2009.06.002

Hwang, H.-S., Kim, S., Evans, K. O., Koga, C., & Lee, Y. (2015). Morphology and networks of sunflower wax crystals in soybean oil organogel. Food Structure, 5, 10–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foostr.2015.04.002

Hwang, H.-S., Singh, M., Winkler-Moser, J. K., Bakota, E. L., & Liu, S. X. (2014). Preparation of Margarines from Organogels of Sunflower Wax and Vegetable Oils. Journal of Food Science, 79(10), C1926–C1932. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12596

Jang, A., Bae, W., Hwang, H.-S., Lee, H. G., & Lee, S. (2015). Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods. Food Chemistry, 187(4), 525–529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.110

Lopes, J. D. (2010). Master Thesis - Simplified process to production of concentrated long chain fatty acids from sugar cane wax (Saccharum officinarum L.). Universidade Estadual de Campinas.

Lupi, F.R., Gabriele, D., Facciolo, D., Baldino, N., Seta, L., & de Cindio, B. (2012). Effect of organogelator and fat source on rheological properties of olive oil-based organogels. Food Research International, 46(1), 177–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.11.029

Lupi, Francesca R., Gabriele, D., Seta, L., Baldino, N., & de Cindio, B. (2014). Rheological design of stabilized meat sauces for industrial uses. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 116(12), 1734–1744. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400286

Mert, B., & Demirkesen, I. (2016). Evaluation of highly unsaturated oleogels as shortening replacer in a short dough product. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 68, 477–484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.12.063

Miyazaki, Y., Yoshida, K., & Marangoni, A. G. (2011). Online Only Supplement - Lecture Abstracts of the 9th Euro Fed Lipid Congress, Rotterdam 18-21 September 2011. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113(S1), 1–46. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201100363

Morales-Rueda, J. A., Dibildox-Alvarado, E., Charó-Alonso, M. A., & Toro-Vazquez, J. F. (2009). Rheological Properties of Candelilla Wax and Dotriacontane Organogels Measured with a True-Gap System. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 86(8), 765–772. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-009-1414-3

Morales-Rueda, J. A., Dibildox-Alvarado, E., Charó-Alonso, M. a., Weiss, R. G., & Toro-Vazquez, J. F. (2009). Thermo-mechanical properties of candelilla wax and dotriacontane organogels in safflower oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 111(2), 207–215. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200810174

Parish, E. J., Boos, T. L., & Li, S. (2002). The Chemistry of Waxes and Sterols. In C. C. . Akoh & D. B. . Min (Eds.), Food Lipids - Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology (p. 30). CRC Press LLC. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203908815.ch4

Patel, A. R., & Dewettinck, K. (2016). Edible oil structuring: an overview and recent updates. Food Funct., 7(1), 20–29. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5FO01006C

Pernetti, M., van Malssen, K. F., Flöter, E., & Bot, A. (2007). Structuring of edible oils by alternatives to crystalline fat. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 12(4–5), 221–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cocis.2007.07.002

Pernetti, M., van Malssen, K., Kalnin, D., & Floter, E. (2007). Structuring edible oil with lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate. Food Hydrocolloids, 21(5–6), 855–861. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2006.10.023

Rocha, J.C.B., Lopes, J. D., Mascarenhas, M. C. N., Arellano, D. B., Guerreiro, L. M. R., & da Cunha, R. L. (2013). Thermal and rheological properties of organogels formed by sugarcane or candelilla wax in soybean oil. Food Research International, 50(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.10.043

Rogers, M. A. (2009). Novel structuring strategies for unsaturated fats – Meeting the zero-trans, zero-saturated fat challenge: A review. Food Research International, 42(7), 747–753. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.02.024

Rogers, M. A., Wright, A. J., & Marangoni, A. G. (2009a). Oil organogels: the fat of the future? Soft Matter, 5(8), 1594. https://doi.org/10.1039/b822008p

Rogers, M. A., Wright, A. J., & Marangoni, A. G. (2009b). Nanostructuring fiber morphology and solvent inclusions in 12-hydroxystearic acid / canola oil organogels. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 14(1), 33–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cocis.2008.02.004

Rogers, M. A., Wright, A., & Marangoni, A. G. (2008). Crystalline stability of self-assembled fibrillar networks of 12-hydroxystearic acid in edible oils. Food Research International, 41(10), 1026–1034. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2008.07.012

Terech, P. (1992). 12-D-Hydroxyoctadecanoic acid organogels : a small angle neutron scattering study. Journal de Physique II, 2(12), 2181–2195. https://doi.org/10.1051/jp2:1992259

Toro-Vazquez, J. F., Morales-Rueda, J. A., Dibildox-Alvarado, E., Charó-Alonso, M., Alonzo-Macias, M., & González-Chávez, M. M. (2007). Thermal and Textural Properties of Organogels Developed by Candelilla Wax in Safflower Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 84(11), 989–1000. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-007-1139-0

Vieira, T. M. F. de S. (2003). Thesis - OBTENÇÃO DE CERA DE CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR A PARTIR DE SUBPRODUTO DA INDÚSTRIA SUCRO-ALCOOLEIRA : EXTRAÇÃO , PURIFICAÇÃO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO [Universidade Estadual de Campinas]. http://www.bibliotecadigital.unicamp.br/document/?code=vtls000307074

Yılmaz, E., & Öğütcü, M. (2015). The texture, sensory properties and stability of cookies prepared with wax oleogels. Food Funct., 6(4), 1194–1204. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5FO00019J

Zulim Botega, D. C., Marangoni, A. G., Smith, A. K., & Goff, H. D. (2013). The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream. Journal of Food Science, 78(9), C1334-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12175




How to Cite

ROCHA, J. C. B.; BARRERA-ARELLANO, D. Obtention and characterization of soybean oil organogels structured with sugarcane wax and its hot ethanol soluble fractions. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 9, n. 6, p. e46963471, 2020. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v9i6.3471. Disponível em: https://www.rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/3471. Acesso em: 25 feb. 2024.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences