Acute pancreatitis and its general aspects

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v12i12.44079

Keywords:

Acute pancreatitis; Enzymes; Grey-Turner sign; Amylase.

Abstract

Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreas that occurs suddenly. In pancreatitis, digestive enzymes, which should be released into the digestive tract, end up damaging the pancreas itself and other adjacent organs, causing tissue self-digestion. There are many causes of acute pancreatitis. Most cases are secondary to biliary diseases, such as gallstones (including microlithiasis), or excessive alcohol intake (which accounts for 80 to 90% of cases). The main symptom of acute pancreatitis is abdominal pain, and this clinical manifestation is of great variability and can present as a mild and self-limited discomfort to intense, constant and disabling suffering. In typical cases, the pain will be located in the epigastrium and in the periumbilical region, and may radiate to the back, chest, flanks and lower parts of the abdomen (severe, band-like pain radiating to the back). In addition, some cutaneous signs can be observed, such as Grey-Turner's Sign, Cullen's Sign, Panniculitis and Fox's Sign. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is defined by the presence of at least two of the three primary characteristics, which are clinical presentation, changes in laboratory tests, and changes in imaging tests. Laboratory tests consist of the analysis of serum amylase and lipase levels. Within a few hours of the onset of symptoms, the levels of these enzymes increase. Increases greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal levels of these enzymes are the recommended ceiling for diagnosis. In addition, imaging tests that may be requested are abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.

References

Aguilar, A. (2019). Pancreatite aguda: fisiopatologia e manejo inicial. Acta Med Costarric., 61(1):13-21.

Álvares, L., et al. (2013). Perfil clínico epidemiológico de pacientes com pancreatite aguda em um hospital público de São Luís, Maranhão. Rev Pesq Saúde, 14(2):109-12.

Araújo, G. B., et al. (2018). Perfil clínico-epidemiológico de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica. Para Res Med J., 4(38).

Dijk, S., et al. (2017). Acute pancreatitis: recent advances through randomised trials. Gut., (11):1-9.

Dumnicka, P., et al. (2017). The interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial injury in the early phase of acute pancreatitis: clinical implications. Int J Mol Sci., 18(2):354-7.

Ferreira, A. F., et al. (2015). Fatores preditivos de gravidade da pancreatite aguda: quais e quando utilizar? Arq Bras Cir Dig., 28(3):207-11.

Habtezion, A. (2015). Inflammation in acute and chronic pancreatitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol., 31(5):395-9.

Houghton, E. J., et al. (2018). Necrotizing pancreatitis: description of videoscopic assisted retroperitoneal debridement (vard) technique with covered metallic stent. Arq Bras Cir Dig., 31(2).

Kamal, A., et al. (2017). Effectiveness of guideline-recommended cholecystectomy to prevent recurrent pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol.,112(3):503-10.

Li, Z., et al. (2016). Peritoneal lavage for severe acute pancreatitis. Pancreas, 45(6):806-13.

Maltoni, I. S., et al. (2018). Evidências de revisões sistemáticas Cochrane sobre diagnóstico e tratamento da pancreatite aguda. Diagn Tratamento, 23(4):160-169.

Mars, H. (2016). Improving the outcome of acute pancreatitis. Dig Dis., 34(5):540-5.

Minkov, G., et al. (2015). Pathophysiological mechanisms of acute pancreatitis define inflammatory markers of clinical prognosis. Pancreas, 44(5):713-7.

Mourad, M., et al. (2017). Prophylactic antibiotics in acute pancreatitis: endless debate. Ann R Coll Surg Engl., 99(2):107-12.

Niehues, G., et al. (2017). Avaliação clínico-laboratorial e o prognóstico da pancreatite aguda biliar. Arq Catarin Med., 46(2):2-14.

Sah, R., et al. (2013). New insights into the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol., 29(5):523-30.

Singh, P. (2016). Pathophysiological mechanisms in acute pancreatitis: current understanding. Indian J Gastroenterol., 35(3):153-66.

Siriwardena, A. (2017). Improving care for patients with pancreatitis. UK: Wiley Online Library.

Souza, G. D., et al. (2016). Entendendo o consenso internacional para as pancreatites agudas: classificação de Atlanta 2012. Arq Bras Cir Dig., 29(3):206-10.

Waele, J. J. (2014). Acute pancreatitis. Curr Opin Crit Care, 20(2):189-95.

Published

18/11/2023

How to Cite

OLIVEIRA, F. D. B. de .; MACHADO, H. P.; TROYA, J.; ALVES, L. P.; VANINI, A. R.; HAJEL, V. A.; OLIVEIRA, M. E. O. de .; VENTURELI NETO, J. G. .; BALDUINO, P. H. N.; BRANDOLEZ , I. A. Acute pancreatitis and its general aspects. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 12, n. 12, p. e104121244079, 2023. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v12i12.44079. Disponível em: https://www.rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/44079. Acesso em: 26 feb. 2024.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences